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GDPR > 第 22 條. 個人化之自動決策,包括建檔
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第 22 條 GDPR. 個人化之自動決策,包括建檔

Article 22 GDPR. Automated individual decision-making, including profiling

1. 資料主體應有權不受僅基於自動化處理(包括建檔)所做成而對 其產生法律效果或類似之重大影響之決策所拘束。

1. The data subject shall have the right not to be subject to a decision based solely on automated processing, including profiling, which produces legal effects concerning him or her or similarly significantly affects him or her.

專家評論
(EN) Author
(EN) Siarhei Varankevich CIPP/E, CIPM, CIPT, MBA, FIP
FIP_IAPP
(EN) Co-Founder & CEO of Data Privacy Office LLC. Data Protection Trainer and Principal Consultant

2. 第一項規定不予適用,如該決策:

2. Paragraph 1 shall not apply if the decision:

(a) 係為締結或履行資料主體與控管者間之契約所必要者;

(a) is necessary for entering into, or performance of, a contract between the data subject and a data controller;

(b) 係控管者受拘束之歐盟法或會員國法有明文授權,且定有適當之 保護措施以確保資料主體之權利及自由及正當利益者;或

(b) is authorised by Union or Member State law to which the controller is subject and which also lays down suitable measures to safeguard the data subject‘s rights and freedoms and legitimate interests; or

(c) 係基於資料主體之明確同意者。

(c) is based on the data subject’s explicit consent.

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3. 在第 2 項所定第 a 點及第 c 點之情形,資料控管者應執行適當保護 措施以確保資料主體之權利及自由及正當利益,至少有權對控管者部 分為人為參與、表達意見以及挑戰該決策。

3. In the cases referred to in points (a) and (c) of paragraph 2, the data controller shall implement suitable measures to safeguard the data subject‘s rights and freedoms and legitimate interests, at least the right to obtain human intervention on the part of the controller, to express his or her point of view and to contest the decision.

4. 除第 9 條第 2 項第 a 點或第 g 點所定情形外,第 2 項所定決策不 得係基於第 9 條第 1 項所定之特殊類型之個人資料,且應實施適當保 護措施以確保資料主體之權利及自由及正當利益。

4. Decisions referred to in paragraph 2 shall not be based on special categories of personal data referred to in Article 9(1), unless point (a) or (g) of Article 9(2) applies and suitable measures to safeguard the data subject’s rights and freedoms and legitimate interests are in place.

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專家評論 ISO 27701 献技 指南和案例法 发表评论
專家評論

(EN)

Data Subject Request Letter Sample

Concern: Request to object to automated decision

Dear Madam, Dear Sir,

I am subject to a decision made by your [company | organization | etc.] based solely on [automated processing | profiling | etc.].


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(EN) Author
Louis-Philippe Gratton
(EN) Louis-Philippe Gratton PhD, LLM
(EN) Privacy Expert
ISO 27701

(EN) ISO/IEC 27701, adopted in 2019, added additional ISO/IEC 27002 guidance for PII controllers.

Here is the relevant paragraphs to article 22 GDPR:

7.2.2 Identify lawful basis

Control

The organization should determine, document and comply with the relevant lawful basis for the processing of PII for the identified purposes.

Implementation guidance

Some jurisdictions require the organization to be able to demonstrate that the lawfulness of processing was duly established before the processing.


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献技

(71) 資料主體應有權不受決策之拘束,該決策可能包括對其產生法 律效果或類似之重大影響並僅以自動化處理來評估其個人特徵之措 施,例如網路貸款申請之自動拒絕或不包括任何人為介入之電子化招 募。該處理包括評估個人特徵之個人資料自動化處理的任何形式之 「建檔」,尤其是為了分析或預測有關資料主體之工作表現、經濟狀 況、健康、個人偏好或興趣、可信度或行為、地點或動向等特徵,而 會對其產生法律效果或類似之重大影響者。然而,在控管者受拘束之 歐盟法或會員國法有明文授權時,基於該處理所作成之決策(包括建 檔)應予允許,此包括為監控及預防詐騙及逃漏稅之目的,依歐盟機 構或國家層級監督機構之規範、標準及建議所為之者,以及為確保控 管者提供服務之安全性與可信度,或為締結或履行資料主體與控管者 間之契約所必要者,或於資料主體曾給予明確同意之情形。在任何情 況下,該處理應有適當之保護措施,此應包括將特定資訊給予資料主 體及獲得人為干預、表達意見、獲得依上開評估後做成決策之解釋, 以及挑戰該決策之權利。該措施不得涉及兒童。

(71) The data subject should have the right not to be subject to a decision, which may include a measure, evaluating personal aspects relating to him or her which is based solely on automated processing and which produces legal effects concerning him or her or similarly significantly affects him or her, such as automatic refusal of an online credit application or e-recruiting practices without any human intervention. Such processing includes ‘profiling’ that consists of any form of automated processing of personal data evaluating the personal aspects relating to a natural person, in particular to analyse or predict aspects concerning the data subject's performance at work, economic situation, health, personal preferences or interests, reliability or behaviour, location or movements, where it produces legal effects concerning him or her or similarly significantly affects him or her. However, decision-making based on such processing, including profiling, should be allowed where expressly authorised by Union or Member State law to which the controller is subject, including for fraud and tax-evasion monitoring and prevention purposes conducted in accordance with the regulations, standards and recommendations of Union institutions or national oversight bodies and to ensure the security and reliability of a service provided by the controller, or necessary for the entering or performance of a contract between the data subject and a controller, or when the data subject has given his or her explicit consent. In any case, such processing should be subject to suitable safeguards, which should include specific information to the data subject and the right to obtain human intervention, to express his or her point of view, to obtain an explanation of the decision reached after such assessment and to challenge the decision. Such measure should not concern a child.

為了確保對於資料主體之公平與透明的資料處理,於考慮個人資料處 理之特定情況與脈絡時,控管者應於建檔時使用適當之計算或統計程 序、應實施科技化且有組織的措施以適度確保尤其是可使個人資料不 準確性得以更正及將錯誤風險最小化的要素,並應在考慮資料主體的 利益與權利所受潛在風險,及預防包括但不限於基於種族或人種、政 治意見、宗教或信仰、貿易聯盟會員、基因或健康狀態或性傾向等理 由對當事人之歧視效果或造成此種效果之態度下,保護個人資料。基 於特殊類型之個人資料所為之自動決策與建檔只有在特定條件下始 被允許。

In order to ensure fair and transparent processing in respect of the data subject, taking into account the specific circumstances and context in which the personal data are processed, the controller should use appropriate mathematical or statistical procedures for the profiling, implement technical and organisational measures appropriate to ensure, in particular, that factors which result in inaccuracies in personal data are corrected and the risk of errors is minimised, secure personal data in a manner that takes account of the potential risks involved for the interests and rights of the data subject and that prevents, inter alia, discriminatory effects on natural persons on the basis of racial or ethnic origin, political opinion, religion or beliefs, trade union membership, genetic or health status or sexual orientation, or that result in measures having such an effect. Automated decision-making and profiling based on special categories of personal data should be allowed only under specific conditions.

(72) 建檔受本規則規範個人資料處理之規定所拘束,例如關於處理 或資料保護原則之法律基礎。本規則所創立之歐洲資料保護委員會 (「委員會」)應在此脈絡下提出指導。

(72) Profiling is subject to the rules of this Regulation governing the processing of personal data, such as the legal grounds for processing or data protection principles. The European Data Protection Board established by this Regulation (the ‘Board’) should be able to issue guidance in that context.

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