第 55 條 GDPR. 權限
Article 55 GDPR. Competence
第 60 條 GDPR. 領導監管機關與其他相關監管機關間之合作
Article 60 GDPR. Cooperation between the lead supervisory authority and the other supervisory authorities concerned
“An establishment in the Union”
The threshold for “stable arrangement ” can actually be quite low when the centre of activities of a controller concerns the provision of services online. As a result, in some circumstances, the presence of one single employee or agent of a non-EU entity in the Union may be sufficient to constitute a stable arrangement (amounting to an ‘establishment’ for the purposes of Art 3(1)) if that employee or agent acts with a sufficient degree of stability. Conversely, when an employee is based in the EU but the processing is not being carried out in the context of the activities of the EU-based employee in the Union (i.e. the processing relates to activities of the controller outside the EU), the mere presence of an employee in the EU will not result in that processing falling within the scope of the GDPR. In other words, the mere presence of an employee in the EU is not as such sufficient to trigger the application of the GDPR, since for the processing in question to fall within the scope of the GDPR, it must also be carried out in the context of the activities of the EU-based employee.
 Weltimmo, paragraph 31.
The fact that the non-EU entity responsible for the data processing does not have a branch or subsidiary in a Member State does not preclude it from having an establishment there within the meaning of EU data protection law. Although the notion of establishment is broad, it is not without limits. It is not possible to conclude that the non-EU entity has an establishment in the Union merely because the undertaking’s website is accessible in the Union .
 CJEU, Verein für Konsumenteninformation v. Amazon EU Sarl, Case C‑191/15, 28 July 2016, paragraph 76 (hereafter “Verein für Konsumenteninformation”).