(26) 個人資料保護原則應適用於有關識別或可得識別當事人之任何 資訊。已假名化之個人資料，且可透過使用額外資訊而識別出當事人 身分者，應被認為屬於可得識別之當事人的資訊。為決定當事人是否 可被識別，應考慮到所有可合理使用之方法，例如由控管者自己或透 過他人指認以直接或間接地識別該當事人。為確認何為可合理使用作 為識別當事人之方法，應考慮所有客觀因素，諸如：識別所需之成本 與時間，並考慮到資料處理當時現有之技術及科技發展。因此，資料 保護原則不適用於匿名資訊，亦即並非已識別或可識別當事人之資訊， 或以使資料主體不可或不再可識別之方式而成為匿名之個人資料。因 此，本規則無涉於此類匿名資訊之處理，包括為統計或研究目的所為 之者。
(26) The principles of data protection should apply to any information concerning an identified or identifiable natural person. Personal data which have undergone pseudonymisation, which could be attributed to a natural person by the use of additional information should be considered to be information on an identifiable natural person. To determine whether a natural person is identifiable, account should be taken of all the means reasonably likely to be used, such as singling out, either by the controller or by another person to identify the natural person directly or indirectly. To ascertain whether means are reasonably likely to be used to identify the natural person, account should be taken of all objective factors, such as the costs of and the amount of time required for identification, taking into consideration the available technology at the time of the processing and technological developments. The principles of data protection should therefore not apply to anonymous information, namely information which does not relate to an identified or identifiable natural person or to personal data rendered anonymous in such a manner that the data subject is not or no longer identifiable. This Regulation does not therefore concern the processing of such anonymous information, including for statistical or research purposes.
(27) 本規則不適用於死者之個人資料。會員國得自行規範關於死者 之個人資料處理。
(27) This Regulation does not apply to the personal data of deceased persons. Member States may provide for rules regarding the processing of personal data of deceased persons.
(28) 對於個人資料採用假名技術可對資料主體降低風險，並可協助 控管者及處理者履行其保護個人資料之義務。本規則明確引用「假名 化」並無意排除為資料保護目的所為之其他任何措施。
(28) The application of pseudonymisation to personal data can reduce the risks to the data subjects concerned and help controllers and processors to meet their data-protection obligations. The explicit introduction of ‘pseudonymisation’ in this Regulation is not intended to preclude any other measures of data protection.
(29) 為鼓勵於個人資料處理過程中應用假名化技術，當同一控管者， 縱令允許一般分析，於已採取必要之技術及組織措施以確保處理過程 中本規則被遵守且得識別特定資料主體之額外資訊已被分開存放者， 假名化技術應仍有其應用可能。控管者於處理個人資料時應註明在同 一控管者之被授權人。
(29) In order to create incentives to apply pseudonymisation when processing personal data, measures of pseudonymisation should, whilst allowing general analysis, be possible within the same controller when that controller has taken technical and organisational measures necessary to ensure, for the processing concerned, that this Regulation is implemented, and that additional information for attributing the personal data to a specific data subject is kept separately. The controller processing the personal data should indicate the authorised persons within the same controller.
(30) 透過設備、應用程式、工具及通訊協定，諸如網際網路協定位 址、瀏覽歷程記錄識別碼或其他識別工具，諸如無線射頻識別系統標 籤，當事人可被連結到網路上識別碼。此可能留下軌跡，並可被用於 對當事人建檔並識別其身分，特別是當該軌跡結合了唯一的識別碼及 從服務商取得其他資料。
(30) Natural persons may be associated with online identifiers provided by their devices, applications, tools and protocols, such as internet protocol addresses, cookie identifiers or other identifiers such as radio frequency identification tags. This may leave traces which, in particular when combined with unique identifiers and other information received by the servers, may be used to create profiles of the natural persons and identify them.
(31) 為執行公務而取得依法定義務所揭露個人資料之公務機關，諸 如稅務機關及海關、金融調查單位、獨立行政機關或負責規範及監管 證券市場之金融市場主管機關，如其接收個人資料係為公眾利益所必 要而進行特定詢問者，該公務機關非屬歐盟法或會員國法所定之資料 接收者。公務機關要求揭露應以書面、附理由且偶然為之，且不得通 用於整個檔案系統或與其他檔案系統相聯通。公務機關處理個人資料 應依照其處理之目的，遵守可適用之資料保護規則。
(31) Public authorities to which personal data are disclosed in accordance with a legal obligation for the exercise of their official mission, such as tax and customs authorities, financial investigation units, independent administrative authorities, or financial market authorities responsible for the regulation and supervision of securities markets should not be regarded as recipients if they receive personal data which are necessary to carry out a particular inquiry in the general interest, in accordance with Union or Member State law. The requests for disclosure sent by the public authorities should always be in writing, reasoned and occasional and should not concern the entirety of a filing system or lead to the interconnection of filing systems. The processing of personal data by those public authorities should comply with the applicable data-protection rules according to the purposes of the processing.
(32) 同意之給予必須是資料主體依其意思決定就其個人資料處理所 為具體肯定且自由形成、明確、受充分告知及非模糊之指示，諸如： 口頭或書面之聲明，包括以電子方式為之者。同意可能包括於瀏覽網 頁時所點選之選項、為資訊社會服務所做技術設定之選擇或其他聲明， 或依其脈絡清楚顯示資料主體接受被提案之個人資料處理的行為。因 此，單純沉默、預設選項為同意或不為表示不構成同意。同意應涵蓋 基於相同之一個或多個目的所為之全部處理活動。如個人資料之處理 具有多重目的者，應為全部目的取得同意。如資料主體之同意係基於 電子方式之請求者，該請求必須清楚、簡潔且對所提供服務之使用不 構成非必要之破壞。
(32) Consent should be given by a clear affirmative act establishing a freely given, specific, informed and unambiguous indication of the data subject's agreement to the processing of personal data relating to him or her, such as by a written statement, including by electronic means, or an oral statement. This could include ticking a box when visiting an internet website, choosing technical settings for information society services or another statement or conduct which clearly indicates in this context the data subject's acceptance of the proposed processing of his or her personal data. Silence, pre-ticked boxes or inactivity should not therefore constitute consent. Consent should cover all processing activities carried out for the same purpose or purposes. When the processing has multiple purposes, consent should be given for all of them. If the data subject's consent is to be given following a request by electronic means, the request must be clear, concise and not unnecessarily disruptive to the use of the service for which it is provided.
(33) 為科學研究目的所為之個人資料處理，於資料蒐集當時，通常 不可能完整指明該處理之目的。因此，當科學研究符合公認之道德標 準時，應允許資料主體僅就科學研究之特定範圍為同意之表示。資料 主體應有機會僅就特定研究範圍或預期目的所允許範圍內之部分研 究計畫表示同意。
(33) It is often not possible to fully identify the purpose of personal data processing for scientific research purposes at the time of data collection. Therefore, data subjects should be allowed to give their consent to certain areas of scientific research when in keeping with recognised ethical standards for scientific research. Data subjects should have the opportunity to give their consent only to certain areas of research or parts of research projects to the extent allowed by the intended purpose.
(34) 基因資料係指經由當事人生物樣本分析後所涉及該當事人遺傳 性或突變性之基因特徵之個人資料，特別是染色體、去氧核糖核酸 （DNA）或核糖核酸（RNA）分析或從其他元素可獲得相同資料之 分析。
(34) Genetic data should be defined as personal data relating to the inherited or acquired genetic characteristics of a natural person which result from the analysis of a biological sample from the natural person in question, in particular chromosomal, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) or ribonucleic acid (RNA) analysis, or from the analysis of another element enabling equivalent information to be obtained.
(35) 關於健康之個人資料應包括資料主體所揭露關於過去、現在或 未來生理或心理健康狀態而與該資料主體健康情況有關之全部資料。 其中包括在為當事人登記之過程中或為其提供依照歐洲議會及歐盟 理事會所定第 2011/24/EU 號指令定義之醫療照顧服務中所蒐集之 資訊；為醫療目的特別配予當事人而用以識別該人之號碼、標誌或獨 特標識；對身體部位或組成物質（包括基因資料或生物樣本）進行測 試或檢驗所得到之資訊；及從醫生或其他醫療專業人員、醫院、醫療 裝置或體外診斷測試等獨立於資料主體以外來源所得之任何資訊，例 如：疾病、殘疾、患病風險、病史、臨床治療或該資料主體之生理狀 態或醫學狀態。
(35) Personal data concerning health should include all data pertaining to the health status of a data subject which reveal information relating to the past, current or future physical or mental health status of the data subject. This includes information about the natural person collected in the course of the registration for, or the provision of, health care services as referred to in Directive 2011/24/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council  to that natural person; a number, symbol or particular assigned to a natural person to uniquely identify the natural person for health purposes; information derived from the testing or examination of a body part or bodily substance, including from genetic data and biological samples; and any information on, for example, a disease, disability, disease risk, medical history, clinical treatment or the physiological or biomedical state of the data subject independent of its source, for example from a physician or other health professional, a hospital, a medical device or an in vitro diagnostic test.
(36) 控管者於歐盟境內之主要分支機構應為其於歐盟境內核心管理 機構之所在地，但個人資料處理的目的及方式係由控管者於歐盟境內 另一分支機構所決定者，該分支機構應被視為主要分支機構。控管者 於歐盟境內之主要分支機構應按客觀標準判定之，且其應經由穩定之 安排而就個人資料處理之目的及方式等主要決策採取有效及有實際 執行之管理行動。判定主要分支機構之標準不得取決於個人資料處理 是否於該處所為之。為處理個人資料或其處理活動之技術方法或科技之存在與利用，其本身不構成主要分支機構，且因此並非主要分支機構之決定性標準。資料處理者之主要分支機構應為其於歐盟境內核心管理機構之所在地，或其於歐盟境內並無核心管理機構時，為其於歐盟境內為主要處理活動之所在地。於同時涉及控管者及處理者時，主管之領導監管機關應為控管者主要分支機構所在地會員國之監管機關，但處理者之監管機關應被視為係相關監管機關而應參與本規則所定之合作程序。在任何情況下，於裁決草案僅涉及控管者時，有一個或多個分支機構之資料處理者所在之一個或多個會員國監管機關均不得視為係相關監管機關。個人資料處理係由企業集團實施者，控制企業之主要分支機構應被認定為企業集團之主要分支機構，但個人資料處理之目的及方式係由其他企業所決定者，不在此限。
(36) The main establishment of a controller in the Union should be the place of its central administration in the Union, unless the decisions on the purposes and means of the processing of personal data are taken in another establishment of the controller in the Union, in which case that other establishment should be considered to be the main establishment. The main establishment of a controller in the Union should be determined according to objective criteria and should imply the effective and real exercise of management activities determining the main decisions as to the purposes and means of processing through stable arrangements. That criterion should not depend on whether the processing of personal data is carried out at that location. The presence and use of technical means and technologies for processing personal data or processing activities do not, in themselves, constitute a main establishment and are therefore not determining criteria for a main establishment. The main establishment of the processor should be the place of its central administration in the Union or, if it has no central administration in the Union, the place where the main processing activities take place in the Union. In cases involving both the controller and the processor, the competent lead supervisory authority should remain the supervisory authority of the Member State where the controller has its main establishment, but the supervisory authority of the processor should be considered to be a supervisory authority concerned and that supervisory authority should participate in the cooperation procedure provided for by this Regulation. In any case, the supervisory authorities of the Member State or Member States where the processor has one or more establishments should not be considered to be supervisory authorities concerned where the draft decision concerns only the controller. Where the processing is carried out by a group of undertakings, the main establishment of the controlling undertaking should be considered to be the main establishment of the group of undertakings, except where the purposes and means of processing are determined by another undertaking.
(37) 企業集團應包括控制企業及從屬企業，在此之控制企業應係能 夠藉由諸如股權、資金參與或治理規範或執行個人資料保護規定之權 力等方式對他企業發揮決定性影響力之企業。企業監控其關係企業之 個人資料處理者，應將其與該等關係企業視為一企業集團。
(37) A group of undertakings should cover a controlling undertaking and its controlled undertakings, whereby the controlling undertaking should be the undertaking which can exert a dominant influence over the other undertakings by virtue, for example, of ownership, financial participation or the rules which govern it or the power to have personal data protection rules implemented. An undertaking which controls the processing of personal data in undertakings affiliated to it should be regarded, together with those undertakings, as a group of undertakings.