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Airteagal 9 RGCS (GDPR). Catagóirí speisialta sonraí pearsanta a phróiseáil

Article 9 GDPR. Processing of special categories of personal data

1. Toirmeascfar próiseáil a dhéanamh ar shonraí pearsanta lena léirítear tionscnamh ciníoch nó eitneach, tuairimí polaitiúla, creideamh reiligiúnach nó fealsúnach, nó ballraíocht i gceardchumann, agus toirmeascfar próiseáil ar shonraí géiniteacha, ar shonraí bithmhéadracha chun duine nádúrtha a shainaithint go huathúil, ar shonraí a bhaineann leis an tsláinte nó ar shonraí a bhaineann le saol gnéis agus le gnéaschlaonadh duine nádúrtha.

1. Processing of personal data revealing racial or ethnic origin, political opinions, religious or philosophical beliefs, or trade union membership, and the processing of genetic data, biometric data for the purpose of uniquely identifying a natural person, data concerning health or data concerning a natural person’s sex life or sexual orientation shall be prohibited.

Dlí Treoirlínte & Cásanna Recitals

(51) Tá cosaint ar leith dlite do shonraí pearsanta ar de chineál fíor-íogair iad maidir le cearta bunúsacha agus saoirsí bunúsacha, toisc go bhféadfaí rioscaí suntasacha a chruthú do na cearta bunúsacha agus saoirsí bunúsacha mar thoradh ar chomhthéacs a bpróiseála. Ba cheart a áireamh ar na sonraí pearsanta sin sonraí pearsanta lena nochttar tionscnamh ciníoch nó eitneach, ar an tuiscint nach é an bhrí a bhainfear as úsáid an téarma “tionscnamh eitneach” sa Rialachán seo go nglactar san Aontas le teoiricí lena ndéantar iarracht a chinneadh gur ann do chiníocha daonna ar leith. Níor cheart a mheas go córasach gur próiseáil catagóirí speisialta sonraí pearsanta atá i bpróiseáil grianghraf ós rud é go gcumhdaítear iad leis an sainmhíniú ar shonraí bithmhéadracha sa chás nuar a dhéantar iad a phróiseáil trí mhodh sonrach teicniúil lena gceadaítear sainaithint uathúil nó fíordheimhniú uathúil duine nádúrtha agus sa chás sin amháin. Níor cheart sonraí pearsanta den sórt sin a phróiseáil, ach amháin má cheadaítear an phróiseáil i gcásanna sonracha a leagtar amach sa Rialachán seo, ag cur san áireamh gur féidir forálacha sonracha a leagan síos i ndlí an Bhallstáit sin maidir le cosaint sonraí d'fhonn cur i bhfeidhm na rialacha sa Rialachán seo a chur in oiriúint chun go gcomhlíonfaí oibleagáid dhlíthiúil nó chun cúram a chur i gcrích a dhéantar ar mhaithe le leas an phobail nó i bhfeidhmiú údaráis oifigiúil atá dílsithe don rialaitheoir. I dteannta na gceanglas sonrach maidir le próiseáil den sórt sin, ba cheart feidhm a bheith ag na prionsabail ghinearálta agus ag na rialacha eile atá sa Rialachán seo, go háirithe maidir leis na coinníollacha i ndáil le próiseáil dhleathach. Maoluithe ón toirmeasc ginearálta chun catagóirí speisialta sonraí pearsanta den sórt sin a phróiseáil, ba cheart foráil a dhéanamh go sainráite dóibh, inter alia, i gcás ina dtugann an t-ábhar sonraí a thoiliú nó a toiliú sainráite nó maidir le riachtanais shonracha, go háirithe i gcás ina ndéanann comhlachais nó fondúireachtaí áirithe an phróiseáil le linn gníomhaíochtaí dlisteanacha arb é is críoch dóibh go gceadaítear saoirsí bunúsacha a fheidhmiú.

(51) Personal data which are, by their nature, particularly sensitive in relation to fundamental rights and freedoms merit specific protection as the context of their processing could create significant risks to the fundamental rights and freedoms. Those personal data should include personal data revealing racial or ethnic origin, whereby the use of the term ‘racial origin’ in this Regulation does not imply an acceptance by the Union of theories which attempt to determine the existence of separate human races. The processing of photographs should not systematically be considered to be processing of special categories of personal data as they are covered by the definition of biometric data only when processed through a specific technical means allowing the unique identification or authentication of a natural person. Such personal data should not be processed, unless processing is allowed in specific cases set out in this Regulation, taking into account that Member States law may lay down specific provisions on data protection in order to adapt the application of the rules of this Regulation for compliance with a legal obligation or for the performance of a task carried out in the public interest or in the exercise of official authority vested in the controller. In addition to the specific requirements for such processing, the general principles and other rules of this Regulation should apply, in particular as regards the conditions for lawful processing. Derogations from the general prohibition for processing such special categories of personal data should be explicitly provided, inter alia, where the data subject gives his or her explicit consent or in respect of specific needs in particular where the processing is carried out in the course of legitimate activities by certain associations or foundations the purpose of which is to permit the exercise of fundamental freedoms.

2. Ní bheidh feidhm ag mír 1 i gcás go mbeidh feidhm ag ceann amháin díobh seo leanas:

2. Paragraph 1 shall not apply if one of the following applies:

Recitals

(52) Ba cheart maolú a cheadú ón toirmeasc ar phróiseáil a dhéanamh ar chatagóirí speisialta sonraí pearsanta freisin i gcás ina bhforáiltear dó sin i ndlí an Aontais nó i ndlí Ballstáit agus faoi réir coimircí oiriúnacha, d'fhonn sonraí pearsanta agus cearta bunúsacha eile a chosaint, i gcás inarb é ar mhaithe le leas an phobail déanamh amhlaidh, go háirithe maidir le sonraí pearsanta a phróiseáil i réimse dhlí na fostaíochta, dhlí na coimirce sóisialta lena n-áirítear pinsin agus ar mhaithe le críocha shlándáil na sláinte, críocha faireacháin agus foláirimh, ar mhaithe le galair theagmhálacha agus bagairtí tromchúiseacha eile ar an tsláinte a chosc nó a rialú. Féadfar maolú den sórt sin a dhéanamh chun críocha na sláinte, lena n-áirítear an tsláinte phoiblí agus chun críocha bhainistiú na seirbhísí cúraim sláinte, go háirithe chun cáilíocht agus cost-éifeachtúlacht a áirithiú maidir leis na nósanna imeachta a úsáidtear chun éilimh ar shochair agus ar sheirbhísí sa chóras árachais sláinte a réiteach, nó chun críocha cartlannú a dhéanamh ar mhaithe le leas an phobail, chun críocha taighde eolaíoch agus stairiúil nó chun críocha staidrimh. Ba cheart a cheadú le maolú freisin go ndéanfaí sonraí pearsanta den sórt sin a phróiseáil i gcás inarb iomchuí maidir le héilimh dhlíthiúla a bhunú, a fheidhmiú nó a chosaint, cibé acu in imeachtaí breithiúnacha nó i nósanna imeachta riaracháin nó nósanna imeachta lasmuigh den chúirt.

(52) Derogating from the prohibition on processing special categories of personal data should also be allowed when provided for in Union or Member State law and subject to suitable safeguards, so as to protect personal data and other fundamental rights, where it is in the public interest to do so, in particular processing personal data in the field of employment law, social protection law including pensions and for health security, monitoring and alert purposes, the prevention or control of communicable diseases and other serious threats to health. Such a derogation may be made for health purposes, including public health and the management of health-care services, especially in order to ensure the quality and cost-effectiveness of the procedures used for settling claims for benefits and services in the health insurance system, or for archiving purposes in the public interest, scientific or historical research purposes or statistical purposes. A derogation should also allow the processing of such personal data where necessary for the establishment, exercise or defence of legal claims, whether in court proceedings or in an administrative or out-of-court procedure.

(53) Catagóirí speisialta sonraí pearsanta a bhfuil cosaint níos airde dlite dóibh, ní fhéadfar iad a phróiseáil ach amháin chun críocha a bhaineann leis an tsláinte i gcás inar gá chun na críocha sin a bhaint amach chun tairbhe daoine nádúrtha agus na sochaí ina hiomláine, go háirithe i gcomhthéacs na seirbhísí agus na córais cúraim sláinte nó sóisialta a bhainistiú, lena n-áirítear na sonraí sin a bheith á bpróiseáil ag an mbainistíocht agus ag na húdaráis náisiúnta lárnacha chun críocha an rialaithe cáilíochta, an bhainistithe faisnéise agus na maoirseachta áitiúla agus náisiúnta ginearálta ar an gcóras cúraim sláinte nó sóisialta, agus chun leanúnachas a áirithiú maidir le cúram sláinte nó sóisialta agus maidir le cúram sláinte trasteorann nó an tslándáil sláinte thrasteorann nó chun críocha faireacháin agus foláirimh, nó chun críocha cartlannú a dhéanamh ar mhaithe le leas an phobail, chun críocha taighde eolaíoch nó stairiúil nó chun críocha staidrimh ar bhonn dhlí an Aontais nó dlí Ballstáit, a bhfuil sé riachtanach cuspóir a bhaineann le leas an phobail a chomhlíonadh ina leith, agus le haghaidh staidéir a dhéantar ar mhaithe le leas an phobail i réimse na sláinte poiblí. Dá bhrí sin, ba cheart foráil a dhéanamh sa Rialachán seo do choinníollacha comhchuibhithe chun próiseáil a dhéanamh ar chatagóirí speisialta sonraí pearsanta a bhaineann leis an tsláinte, i ndáil le riachtanais shonracha, go háirithe i gcás ina ndéanann daoine atá faoi réir oibleagáid dhlíthiúil maidir le rúndacht ghairmiúil sonraí den sórt sin a phróiseáil chun críocha áirithe a bhaineann leis an tsláinte. Ba cheart foráil a dhéanamh, i ndlí an Aontais nó i ndlíBallstáit, do bhearta sonracha oiriúnacha sa chaoi go gcosnófar cearta bunúsacha agus sonraí pearsanta daoine nádúrtha. Ba cheart a cheadú do na Ballstáit coinníollacha breise, lena n-áirítear teorainneacha, a choimeád nó a thabhairt isteach i ndáil le sonraí géiniteacha, sonraí bithmhéadracha nó sonraí a bhaineann leis an tsláinte a phróiseail. Mar sin féin, níor cheart dó sin bac a chur ar shaorshreabhadh sonraí pearsanta laistigh den Aontas nuair a bhíonn feidhm ag na coinníollacha sin maidir le próiseáil thrasteorann sonraí den sórt sin.

(53) Special categories of personal data which merit higher protection should be processed for health-related purposes only where necessary to achieve those purposes for the benefit of natural persons and society as a whole, in particular in the context of the management of health or social care services and systems, including processing by the management and central national health authorities of such data for the purpose of quality control, management information and the general national and local supervision of the health or social care system, and ensuring continuity of health or social care and cross-border healthcare or health security, monitoring and alert purposes, or for archiving purposes in the public interest, scientific or historical research purposes or statistical purposes, based on Union or Member State law which has to meet an objective of public interest, as well as for studies conducted in the public interest in the area of public health. Therefore, this Regulation should provide for harmonised conditions for the processing of special categories of personal data concerning health, in respect of specific needs, in particular where the processing of such data is carried out for certain health-related purposes by persons subject to a legal obligation of professional secrecy. Union or Member State law should provide for specific and suitable measures so as to protect the fundamental rights and the personal data of natural persons. Member States should be allowed to maintain or introduce further conditions, including limitations, with regard to the processing of genetic data, biometric data or data concerning health. However, this should not hamper the free flow of personal data within the Union when those conditions apply to cross-border processing of such data.

(54) D'fhéadfadh sé gur gá catagóirí speisialta sonraí pearsanta a phróiseáil ar mhaithe le leas an phobail i réimsí na sláinte poiblí gan toiliú ón ábhar onraí. Ba cheart próiseáil den sórt sin a bheith faoi réir bearta oiriúnacha sonracha ionas go gcosnófar cearta agus saoirsí daoine nádúrtha. Sa chomhthéacs sin, ba cheart “sláinte phoiblí” a léiriú mar atá sainmhínithe i Rialachán (CE) Uimh. 1338/2008 ó Pharlaimint na hEorpa agus ón gComhairle (11), eadhon na heilimintí uile a bhaineann leis an tsláinte, eadhon stádas sláinte, lena n-áirítear galracht agus míchumas, na deitéarmanaint a bhfuil tionchar acu ar an stádas sláinte sin, riachtanais chúraim sláinte, acmhainní a leithdháiltear ar chúram sláinte, soláthar cúraim sláinte agus rochtain uilíoch air, chomh maith le caiteachas ar chúram sláinte agus maoiniú do chúram sláinte agus cúiseanna mortlaíochta. Maidir le sonraí a bhaineann leis an tsláinte a phróiseáil ar chúiseanna a bhaineann le leas an phobail, níor cheart é a bheith mar thoradh ar phróiseáil den sórt sin go ndéanfadh tríú páirtithe, amhail fostóirí nó cuideachtaí árachais agus baincéireachta, sonraí pearsanta a phróiseáil chun críocha eile.

(54) The processing of special categories of personal data may be necessary for reasons of public interest in the areas of public health without consent of the data subject. Such processing should be subject to suitable and specific measures so as to protect the rights and freedoms of natural persons. In that context, ‘public health’ should be interpreted as defined in Regulation (EC) No 1338/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council [11], namely all elements related to health, namely health status, including morbidity and disability, the determinants having an effect on that health status, health care needs, resources allocated to health care, the provision of, and universal access to, health care as well as health care expenditure and financing, and the causes of mortality. Such processing of data concerning health for reasons of public interest should not result in personal data being processed for other purposes by third parties such as employers or insurance and banking companies.

(11) Rialachán (CE) Uimh. 1338/2008 ó Pharlaimint na hEorpa agus ón gComhairle an 16 Nollaig 2008 maidir le staidreamh Comhphobail i dtaca leis an tsláinte phoiblí agus i dtaca leis an tsláinte agus leis an tsábháilteacht ag an obair (IO L 354, 31.12.2008, lch. 70). https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/AUTO/?uri=OJ:L:2008:354:TOC

[11] Regulation (EC) No 1338/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2008 on Community statistics on public health and health and safety at work (OJ L 354, 31.12.2008, p. 70). https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/AUTO/?uri=OJ:L:2008:354:TOC

(55) Ina theannta sin, is ar mhaithe le leas an phobail a dhéanann údaráis oifigiúla sonraí pearsanta a phróiseáil chun aidhmeanna na gcomhlachas reiligiúnach atá aitheanta go hoifigiúil a bhaint amach, ar aidhmeanna iad atá leagtha síos le dlí bunreachtúil nó le dlí idirnáisiúnta poiblí.

(55) Moreover, the processing of personal data by official authorities for the purpose of achieving the aims, laid down by constitutional law or by international public law, of officially recognised religious associations, is carried out on grounds of public interest.

(56) I gcás ina gcuireann feidhmiú an chórais dhaonlathaigh i mBallstát, agus é i mbun gníomhaíochtaí toghcháin, de cheangal go dtiomsaíonn páirtithe polaitiúla sonraí pearsanta maidir le tuairimí polaitiúla na ndaoine, féadfar próiseáil sonraí den sórt sin a cheadú ar chúiseanna a bhaineann le leas an phobail, ar choinníoll go mbunaítear coimircí iomchuí.

(56) Where in the course of electoral activities, the operation of the democratic system in a Member State requires that political parties compile personal data on people's political opinions, the processing of such data may be permitted for reasons of public interest, provided that appropriate safeguards are established.

(a) thug an t-ábhar sonraí toiliú sainráite go ndéanfaí na sonraí pearsanta sin a phróiseáil ar mhaithe le críoch sonraithe amháin nó níos mó, seachas i gcás ina bhfuil foráil déanta i ndlí an Aontais nó i ndlí Ballstáit nach bhféadfaidh an t-ábhar sonraí an toirmeasc dá dtagraítear i mír 1 a chur i leataobh;

(a) the data subject has given explicit consent to the processing of those personal data for one or more specified purposes, except where Union or Member State law provide that the prohibition referred to in paragraph 1 may not be lifted by the data subject;

Tráchtaireacht
(EN) Author
Louis-Philippe Gratton
(EN) Louis-Philippe Gratton PhD, LLM
(EN) Privacy Expert
ISO 27701

(EN) ISO/IEC 27701, adopted in 2019, added additional ISO/IEC 27002 guidance for PII controllers.

Here is the relevant paragraph to article 9(2)(a) GDPR:

7.2.4 Obtain and record consent

Control

The organization should obtain and record consent from PII principals according to the documented processes.

Implementation guidance

The organization should obtain and record consent from PII principals in such a way that it can provide on request details of the consent provided (for example the time that consent was provided, the identification of the PII principal, and the consent statement).

(EN) […]


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Téacsanna gaolmhara

(b) is gá an phróiseáil a dhéanamh chun oibleagáidí an rialaitheora nó an ábhair sonraí a chomhlíonadh agus chun cearta sonracha an rialaitheora nó an ábhair sonraí a fheidhmiú i réimse dhlí na fostaíochta agus na slándála sóisialta agus cosanta sóisialta a mhéid atá údaraithe le dlí an Aontais nó le dlí Ballstáit nó le comhaontú comhchoiteann de bhun dlí Ballstáit lena bhforáiltear do choimircí iomchuí do chearta bunúsacha agus leasanna an ábhair sonraí;

(b) processing is necessary for the purposes of carrying out the obligations and exercising specific rights of the controller or of the data subject in the field of employment and social security and social protection law in so far as it is authorised by Union or Member State law or a collective agreement pursuant to Member State law providing for appropriate safeguards for the fundamental rights and the interests of the data subject;

Tráchtaireacht
(EN) Author
Louis-Philippe Gratton
(EN) Louis-Philippe Gratton PhD, LLM
(EN) Privacy Expert

(c) is gá an phróiseáil a dhéanamh chun leasanna ríthábhachtacha an ábhair sonraí nó duine nádúrtha eile a chosaint, i gcás nach féidir leis an t-ábhar sonraí toiliú a thabhairt go fisiciúil nó go dlíthiúil;

(c) processing is necessary to protect the vital interests of the data subject or of another natural person where the data subject is physically or legally incapable of giving consent;

Tráchtaireacht
(EN) Author
Louis-Philippe Gratton
(EN) Louis-Philippe Gratton PhD, LLM
(EN) Privacy Expert

(d) déanann fondúireacht, comhlachas nó aon chomhlacht seachbhrabúsach eile an phróiseáil agus é nó í i mbun gníomhaíochtaí dlisteanacha le coimircí iomchuí, ar fondúireacht, comhlachas nó comhlacht é nó í lena mbaineann aidhm pholaitiúil, fhealsúnach, reiligiúnach nó ceardchumannachais, agus ar choinníoll nach mbaineann an phróiseáil ach le comhaltaí nó le hiar-chomhaltaí an chomhlachta nó le daoine a mbíonn teagmháil rialta acu leis an gcomhlacht maidir lena chuspóirí agus ar choinníoll nach nochtar na sonraí pearsanta lasmuigh den chomhlacht sin gan toiliú ó na hábhair sonraí;

(d) processing is carried out in the course of its legitimate activities with appropriate safeguards by a foundation, association or any other not-for-profit body with a political, philosophical, religious or trade union aim and on condition that the processing relates solely to the members or to former members of the body or to persons who have regular contact with it in connection with its purposes and that the personal data are not disclosed outside that body without the consent of the data subjects;

Tráchtaireacht
(EN) Author
Louis-Philippe Gratton
(EN) Louis-Philippe Gratton PhD, LLM
(EN) Privacy Expert

(e) baineann an phróiseáil le sonraí pearsanta is follas gur chuir an duine is ábhar dóibh ar fáil go poiblí;

(e) processing relates to personal data which are manifestly made public by the data subject;

Tráchtaireacht

(EN) The European legislator introduced an exception – for special categories of personal data which are manifestly made public by a person – that seems completely logical at first glance. If a person willingly shares her/his data, it sounds reasonable to allow the processing of these data by third parties. On second thought, many questions come to mind. What does “manifestly” mean? When are data “public”? How to determine if a person intended to make her/his data public?

The exception does not concern all special categories of data publicly available. It applies strictly to data that an individual personally disclosed. It must be a publication that results from a clear and voluntary decision from an individual to disclose information about her/him. It should not be an accidental, inadvertent, involuntary or unintentional disclosure. It should be the result of a free and deliberate decision. The individual must be fully conscious that s/he made her/his data public. Thus, it excludes leaked data, data accessible after a security breach or data shared unintentionally or by inadvertence…

(EN) […]


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(EN) Author
Louis-Philippe Gratton
(EN) Louis-Philippe Gratton PhD, LLM
(EN) Privacy Expert
Dlí Treoirlínte & Cásanna

(f) is gá an phróiseáil a dhéanamh le héilimh dhlíthiúla a bhunú, a fheidhmiú nó a chosaint nó tráth ar bith a mbíonn na cúirteanna ag gníomhú faoina gcumas breithiúnach;

(f) processing is necessary for the establishment, exercise or defence of legal claims or whenever courts are acting in their judicial capacity;

Tráchtaireacht
(EN) Author
Louis-Philippe Gratton
(EN) Louis-Philippe Gratton PhD, LLM
(EN) Privacy Expert

(g) is gá an phróiseáil a dhéanamh ar mhórchúiseanna leasa an phobail, ar bhonn dhlí an Aontais nó dlí Ballstáit a bheidh ar comhréir leis an aidhm atá á saothrú, a urramóidh éirim an chirt maidir le cosaint sonraí agus a fhorálfaidh do bhearta oiriúnacha agus sonracha chun cearta bunúsacha agus leasanna an ábhair sonraí a choimirciú;

(g) processing is necessary for reasons of substantial public interest, on the basis of Union or Member State law which shall be proportionate to the aim pursued, respect the essence of the right to data protection and provide for suitable and specific measures to safeguard the fundamental rights and the interests of the data subject;

Tráchtaireacht
(EN) Author
Louis-Philippe Gratton
(EN) Louis-Philippe Gratton PhD, LLM
(EN) Privacy Expert

(h) is gá an phróiseáil a dhéanamh chun críocha leighis choiscthigh nó ceirde, chun measúnú a dhéanamh ar chumas oibre an fhostaí, diagnóis leighis, cúram sláinte nó cóireáil shóisialta a sholáthar nó bainistiú córas nó seirbhísí cúram sláinte nó sóisialta ar bhonn dhlí an Aontais nó ar bhonn dlí Ballstáit nó de bhun conartha ar shínigh ábhar na sonraí le gairmí sláinte é agus faoi réir na gcoinníollacha agus na gcoimircí dá dtagraítear i mír 3;

(h) processing is necessary for the purposes of preventive or occupational medicine, for the assessment of the working capacity of the employee, medical diagnosis, the provision of health or social care or treatment or the management of health or social care systems and services on the basis of Union or Member State law or pursuant to contract with a health professional and subject to the conditions and safeguards referred to in paragraph 3;

Tráchtaireacht
(EN) Author
Louis-Philippe Gratton
(EN) Louis-Philippe Gratton PhD, LLM
(EN) Privacy Expert
Dlí Treoirlínte & Cásanna

(i) is gá an phróiseáil a dhéanamh ar chúiseanna a bhaineann le leas an phobail i réimse na sláinte poiblí, amhail cosaint i gcoinne bagairtí tromchúiseacha trasteorann ar an tsláinte nó chun ardchaighdeáin cáilíochta agus slándála a áirithiú do chúram sláinte agus do tháirgí íocshláinte nó d’fheistí leighis, ar bhonn dhlí an Aontais nó ar bhonn dhlí Ballstáit lena ndéantar foráil do bhearta oiriúnacha agus sonracha chun go ndéanfar cearta agus saoirsí an ábhair sonraí, go háirithe an rúndacht ghairmiúil, a choimirciú;

(i) processing is necessary for reasons of public interest in the area of public health, such as protecting against serious cross-border threats to health or ensuring high standards of quality and safety of health care and of medicinal products or medical devices, on the basis of Union or Member State law which provides for suitable and specific measures to safeguard the rights and freedoms of the data subject, in particular professional secrecy;

Tráchtaireacht
(EN) Author
Louis-Philippe Gratton
(EN) Louis-Philippe Gratton PhD, LLM
(EN) Privacy Expert
Dlí Treoirlínte & Cásanna

(i) is gá an phróiseáil a dhéanamh chun críocha cartlannú a dhéanamh ar mhaithe le leas an phobail, chun críocha taighde eolaíoch nó stairiúil nó chun críocha staidrimh i gcomhréir le hAirteagal 89(1) bunaithe ar dhlí an Aontais nó ar dhlí Ballstáit a bheidh ar comhréir leis an aidhm atá á saothrú, a urramóidh éirim an chirt maidir le cosaint sonraí agus a fhorálfaidh do bhearta oiriúnacha agus sonracha chun cearta bunúsacha agus leasanna an duine is ábhar don na sonraí a choimirciú.

(j) processing is necessary for archiving purposes in the public interest, scientific or historical research purposes or statistical purposes in accordance with Article 89(1) based on Union or Member State law which shall be proportionate to the aim pursued, respect the essence of the right to data protection and provide for suitable and specific measures to safeguard the fundamental rights and the interests of the data subject.

Tráchtaireacht
(EN) Author
Louis-Philippe Gratton
(EN) Louis-Philippe Gratton PhD, LLM
(EN) Privacy Expert
Dlí Treoirlínte & Cásanna Téacsanna gaolmhara

3. Féadfar sonraí pearsanta dá dtagraítear i mír 1 a phróiseáil chun na críocha dá dtagraítear i bpointe (h) de mhír 2 nuair a dhéanann gairmí na sonraí sin a phróiseáil nó nuair a dhéantar iad a phróiseáil faoi fhreagracht gairmí, ar gairmí é atá faoi réir oibleagáide rúndachta gairmiúla faoi dhlí an Aontais nó Ballstáit nó faoi rialacha arna mbunú ag comhlachtaí náisiúnta inniúla nó má phróiseálann duine eile iad atá faoi réir oibleagáide rúndachta freisin faoi dhlí an Aontais nó dhlí Ballstáit nó faoi rialacha arna mbunú ag comhlachtaí náisiúnta inniúla.

3. Personal data referred to in paragraph 1 may be processed for the purposes referred to in point (h) of paragraph 2 when those data are processed by or under the responsibility of a professional subject to the obligation of professional secrecy under Union or Member State law or rules established by national competent bodies or by another person also subject to an obligation of secrecy under Union or Member State law or rules established by national competent bodies.

4. Féadfaidh na Ballstáit tuilleadh coinníollacha, lena n-áirítear teorainneacha, a choimeád ar bun nó a thabhairt isteach i ndáil le sonraí géiniteacha, sonraí bithmhéadracha nó sonraí a bhaineann leis an tsláinte a phróiseáil.

4. Member States may maintain or introduce further conditions, including limitations, with regard to the processing of genetic data, biometric data or data concerning health.

Tráchtaireacht ISO 27701 Recitals Dlí Treoirlínte & Cásanna Leave a comment
Tráchtaireacht

(EN) Some personal data, because of their sensitive nature, belong to special categories in the General Data Protection Regulation. Processing data mentioned in one of these eight (8) categories poses indeed “significant risks to the fundamental rights and freedoms” of an individual (recital 51). Risks vary depending on the type of data involved. Paragraph one of article 9 enumerates all types of data covered, but they are not readily intelligible. A visual list, broken down into eight points, helps to clarify the scope of the provision and what data are considered “special” by the European regulation:

  1. data disclosing racial or ethnic origin;
  2. data divulging political opinions;
  3. data revealing religious or philosophical beliefs;
  4. data about trade union membership;
  5. genetic data;
  6. biometric data used to identify a person;
  7. data concerning health; and
  8. data relating to a person’s sex life or sexual orientation.

The list must be considered exhaustive as exceptions must be interpreted strictly, so it means that no other exception can be admitted by the Court of Justice of the European Union or by Member States’ legislation. Personal data relating to criminal convictions and offences are not mentioned in this list because they fall under a different legal regime (article 10).

The “special categories of personal data” are treated distinctively mainly to protect individuals from discrimination (recital 71). Their processing might also lead to physical, material or non-material damage, including identity theft, fraud, harm to one’s reputation or breach of professional secrecy (recital 75).

Racial or ethnic origin related data include names, places of birth, native languages, and even extend to the names of an individual’s parents. They are considered sensitive because they may reveal a person’s origin or her/his ethnicity.

Political opinions can be inferred from activities revealing an individual’s political inclination, like membership in a political party, petitions s/he signed or events, meetings or protests s/he attempted. They include information reflecting ideas s/he supports as well as the ones s/he rejects or opposes to.

Data revealing an individual’s practice of a religion or interest in it – like attempting church, buying religious books, participating in religious-related events or demonstrations – may give a glue to a person’s religious affiliation or her/his absence of religious conviction. It is more difficult to determine what philosophical beliefs are. An example taken from an English case law indicates that it is essentially a genuinely held belief that concerns a substantial aspect of human life and behaviour and it is worthy of respect in a democratic society (Grainger Plc v. Nicholson).

The special protection granted to trade union membership information is based on the logic of fundamental rights in the labor environment. It protects individuals from discrimination at work, as a potential consequence of their union activities, and preserves their collective bargaining power among other rights.

Analysis of biological samples provides information about a person’s “inherited or acquired genetic characteristics” [recital 34 and article 4 (13)]. The resulting genetic data may give information about a person’s origin, ethnicity, physiology or health, as some health problems find their cause in abnormalities in the human genome.

Biometric data are information obtained from different measurements of a person’s “physical, physiological or behavioural characteristics” [article 4 (14)]. They serve to uniquely identify an individual, like fingerprints, iris patterns, facial attributes or voice modulation. A photograph is not always classified as biometric data, it is only considered so when its processing reveals characteristics allowing a person to be uniquely identified (recital 51).

(EN) […]


to read the full text

(EN) Author
Louis-Philippe Gratton
(EN) Louis-Philippe Gratton PhD, LLM
(EN) Privacy Expert
ISO 27701

(EN) ISO/IEC 27701, adopted in 2019, added additional ISO/IEC 27002 guidance for PII controllers.

Here is the relevant paragraph to article 9 GDPR:

7.2.2 Identify lawful basis

Control

The organization should determine, document and comply with the relevant lawful basis for the processing of PII for the identified purposes.

Implementation guidance

Some jurisdictions require the organization to be able to demonstrate that the lawfulness of processing was duly established before the processing.

(EN) […]


to read the full text

Recitals

(51) Tá cosaint ar leith dlite do shonraí pearsanta ar de chineál fíor-íogair iad maidir le cearta bunúsacha agus saoirsí bunúsacha, toisc go bhféadfaí rioscaí suntasacha a chruthú do na cearta bunúsacha agus saoirsí bunúsacha mar thoradh ar chomhthéacs a bpróiseála. Ba cheart a áireamh ar na sonraí pearsanta sin sonraí pearsanta lena nochttar tionscnamh ciníoch nó eitneach, ar an tuiscint nach é an bhrí a bhainfear as úsáid an téarma “tionscnamh eitneach” sa Rialachán seo go nglactar san Aontas le teoiricí lena ndéantar iarracht a chinneadh gur ann do chiníocha daonna ar leith. Níor cheart a mheas go córasach gur próiseáil catagóirí speisialta sonraí pearsanta atá i bpróiseáil grianghraf ós rud é go gcumhdaítear iad leis an sainmhíniú ar shonraí bithmhéadracha sa chás nuar a dhéantar iad a phróiseáil trí mhodh sonrach teicniúil lena gceadaítear sainaithint uathúil nó fíordheimhniú uathúil duine nádúrtha agus sa chás sin amháin. Níor cheart sonraí pearsanta den sórt sin a phróiseáil, ach amháin má cheadaítear an phróiseáil i gcásanna sonracha a leagtar amach sa Rialachán seo, ag cur san áireamh gur féidir forálacha sonracha a leagan síos i ndlí an Bhallstáit sin maidir le cosaint sonraí d'fhonn cur i bhfeidhm na rialacha sa Rialachán seo a chur in oiriúint chun go gcomhlíonfaí oibleagáid dhlíthiúil nó chun cúram a chur i gcrích a dhéantar ar mhaithe le leas an phobail nó i bhfeidhmiú údaráis oifigiúil atá dílsithe don rialaitheoir. I dteannta na gceanglas sonrach maidir le próiseáil den sórt sin, ba cheart feidhm a bheith ag na prionsabail ghinearálta agus ag na rialacha eile atá sa Rialachán seo, go háirithe maidir leis na coinníollacha i ndáil le próiseáil dhleathach. Maoluithe ón toirmeasc ginearálta chun catagóirí speisialta sonraí pearsanta den sórt sin a phróiseáil, ba cheart foráil a dhéanamh go sainráite dóibh, inter alia, i gcás ina dtugann an t-ábhar sonraí a thoiliú nó a toiliú sainráite nó maidir le riachtanais shonracha, go háirithe i gcás ina ndéanann comhlachais nó fondúireachtaí áirithe an phróiseáil le linn gníomhaíochtaí dlisteanacha arb é is críoch dóibh go gceadaítear saoirsí bunúsacha a fheidhmiú.

(51) Personal data which are, by their nature, particularly sensitive in relation to fundamental rights and freedoms merit specific protection as the context of their processing could create significant risks to the fundamental rights and freedoms. Those personal data should include personal data revealing racial or ethnic origin, whereby the use of the term ‘racial origin’ in this Regulation does not imply an acceptance by the Union of theories which attempt to determine the existence of separate human races. The processing of photographs should not systematically be considered to be processing of special categories of personal data as they are covered by the definition of biometric data only when processed through a specific technical means allowing the unique identification or authentication of a natural person. Such personal data should not be processed, unless processing is allowed in specific cases set out in this Regulation, taking into account that Member States law may lay down specific provisions on data protection in order to adapt the application of the rules of this Regulation for compliance with a legal obligation or for the performance of a task carried out in the public interest or in the exercise of official authority vested in the controller. In addition to the specific requirements for such processing, the general principles and other rules of this Regulation should apply, in particular as regards the conditions for lawful processing. Derogations from the general prohibition for processing such special categories of personal data should be explicitly provided, inter alia, where the data subject gives his or her explicit consent or in respect of specific needs in particular where the processing is carried out in the course of legitimate activities by certain associations or foundations the purpose of which is to permit the exercise of fundamental freedoms.

(52) Ba cheart maolú a cheadú ón toirmeasc ar phróiseáil a dhéanamh ar chatagóirí speisialta sonraí pearsanta freisin i gcás ina bhforáiltear dó sin i ndlí an Aontais nó i ndlí Ballstáit agus faoi réir coimircí oiriúnacha, d'fhonn sonraí pearsanta agus cearta bunúsacha eile a chosaint, i gcás inarb é ar mhaithe le leas an phobail déanamh amhlaidh, go háirithe maidir le sonraí pearsanta a phróiseáil i réimse dhlí na fostaíochta, dhlí na coimirce sóisialta lena n-áirítear pinsin agus ar mhaithe le críocha shlándáil na sláinte, críocha faireacháin agus foláirimh, ar mhaithe le galair theagmhálacha agus bagairtí tromchúiseacha eile ar an tsláinte a chosc nó a rialú. Féadfar maolú den sórt sin a dhéanamh chun críocha na sláinte, lena n-áirítear an tsláinte phoiblí agus chun críocha bhainistiú na seirbhísí cúraim sláinte, go háirithe chun cáilíocht agus cost-éifeachtúlacht a áirithiú maidir leis na nósanna imeachta a úsáidtear chun éilimh ar shochair agus ar sheirbhísí sa chóras árachais sláinte a réiteach, nó chun críocha cartlannú a dhéanamh ar mhaithe le leas an phobail, chun críocha taighde eolaíoch agus stairiúil nó chun críocha staidrimh. Ba cheart a cheadú le maolú freisin go ndéanfaí sonraí pearsanta den sórt sin a phróiseáil i gcás inarb iomchuí maidir le héilimh dhlíthiúla a bhunú, a fheidhmiú nó a chosaint, cibé acu in imeachtaí breithiúnacha nó i nósanna imeachta riaracháin nó nósanna imeachta lasmuigh den chúirt.

(52) Derogating from the prohibition on processing special categories of personal data should also be allowed when provided for in Union or Member State law and subject to suitable safeguards, so as to protect personal data and other fundamental rights, where it is in the public interest to do so, in particular processing personal data in the field of employment law, social protection law including pensions and for health security, monitoring and alert purposes, the prevention or control of communicable diseases and other serious threats to health. Such a derogation may be made for health purposes, including public health and the management of health-care services, especially in order to ensure the quality and cost-effectiveness of the procedures used for settling claims for benefits and services in the health insurance system, or for archiving purposes in the public interest, scientific or historical research purposes or statistical purposes. A derogation should also allow the processing of such personal data where necessary for the establishment, exercise or defence of legal claims, whether in court proceedings or in an administrative or out-of-court procedure.

(53) Catagóirí speisialta sonraí pearsanta a bhfuil cosaint níos airde dlite dóibh, ní fhéadfar iad a phróiseáil ach amháin chun críocha a bhaineann leis an tsláinte i gcás inar gá chun na críocha sin a bhaint amach chun tairbhe daoine nádúrtha agus na sochaí ina hiomláine, go háirithe i gcomhthéacs na seirbhísí agus na córais cúraim sláinte nó sóisialta a bhainistiú, lena n-áirítear na sonraí sin a bheith á bpróiseáil ag an mbainistíocht agus ag na húdaráis náisiúnta lárnacha chun críocha an rialaithe cáilíochta, an bhainistithe faisnéise agus na maoirseachta áitiúla agus náisiúnta ginearálta ar an gcóras cúraim sláinte nó sóisialta, agus chun leanúnachas a áirithiú maidir le cúram sláinte nó sóisialta agus maidir le cúram sláinte trasteorann nó an tslándáil sláinte thrasteorann nó chun críocha faireacháin agus foláirimh, nó chun críocha cartlannú a dhéanamh ar mhaithe le leas an phobail, chun críocha taighde eolaíoch nó stairiúil nó chun críocha staidrimh ar bhonn dhlí an Aontais nó dlí Ballstáit, a bhfuil sé riachtanach cuspóir a bhaineann le leas an phobail a chomhlíonadh ina leith, agus le haghaidh staidéir a dhéantar ar mhaithe le leas an phobail i réimse na sláinte poiblí. Dá bhrí sin, ba cheart foráil a dhéanamh sa Rialachán seo do choinníollacha comhchuibhithe chun próiseáil a dhéanamh ar chatagóirí speisialta sonraí pearsanta a bhaineann leis an tsláinte, i ndáil le riachtanais shonracha, go háirithe i gcás ina ndéanann daoine atá faoi réir oibleagáid dhlíthiúil maidir le rúndacht ghairmiúil sonraí den sórt sin a phróiseáil chun críocha áirithe a bhaineann leis an tsláinte. Ba cheart foráil a dhéanamh, i ndlí an Aontais nó i ndlíBallstáit, do bhearta sonracha oiriúnacha sa chaoi go gcosnófar cearta bunúsacha agus sonraí pearsanta daoine nádúrtha. Ba cheart a cheadú do na Ballstáit coinníollacha breise, lena n-áirítear teorainneacha, a choimeád nó a thabhairt isteach i ndáil le sonraí géiniteacha, sonraí bithmhéadracha nó sonraí a bhaineann leis an tsláinte a phróiseail. Mar sin féin, níor cheart dó sin bac a chur ar shaorshreabhadh sonraí pearsanta laistigh den Aontas nuair a bhíonn feidhm ag na coinníollacha sin maidir le próiseáil thrasteorann sonraí den sórt sin.

(53) Special categories of personal data which merit higher protection should be processed for health-related purposes only where necessary to achieve those purposes for the benefit of natural persons and society as a whole, in particular in the context of the management of health or social care services and systems, including processing by the management and central national health authorities of such data for the purpose of quality control, management information and the general national and local supervision of the health or social care system, and ensuring continuity of health or social care and cross-border healthcare or health security, monitoring and alert purposes, or for archiving purposes in the public interest, scientific or historical research purposes or statistical purposes, based on Union or Member State law which has to meet an objective of public interest, as well as for studies conducted in the public interest in the area of public health. Therefore, this Regulation should provide for harmonised conditions for the processing of special categories of personal data concerning health, in respect of specific needs, in particular where the processing of such data is carried out for certain health-related purposes by persons subject to a legal obligation of professional secrecy. Union or Member State law should provide for specific and suitable measures so as to protect the fundamental rights and the personal data of natural persons. Member States should be allowed to maintain or introduce further conditions, including limitations, with regard to the processing of genetic data, biometric data or data concerning health. However, this should not hamper the free flow of personal data within the Union when those conditions apply to cross-border processing of such data.

(54) D'fhéadfadh sé gur gá catagóirí speisialta sonraí pearsanta a phróiseáil ar mhaithe le leas an phobail i réimsí na sláinte poiblí gan toiliú ón ábhar onraí. Ba cheart próiseáil den sórt sin a bheith faoi réir bearta oiriúnacha sonracha ionas go gcosnófar cearta agus saoirsí daoine nádúrtha. Sa chomhthéacs sin, ba cheart “sláinte phoiblí” a léiriú mar atá sainmhínithe i Rialachán (CE) Uimh. 1338/2008 ó Pharlaimint na hEorpa agus ón gComhairle (11), eadhon na heilimintí uile a bhaineann leis an tsláinte, eadhon stádas sláinte, lena n-áirítear galracht agus míchumas, na deitéarmanaint a bhfuil tionchar acu ar an stádas sláinte sin, riachtanais chúraim sláinte, acmhainní a leithdháiltear ar chúram sláinte, soláthar cúraim sláinte agus rochtain uilíoch air, chomh maith le caiteachas ar chúram sláinte agus maoiniú do chúram sláinte agus cúiseanna mortlaíochta. Maidir le sonraí a bhaineann leis an tsláinte a phróiseáil ar chúiseanna a bhaineann le leas an phobail, níor cheart é a bheith mar thoradh ar phróiseáil den sórt sin go ndéanfadh tríú páirtithe, amhail fostóirí nó cuideachtaí árachais agus baincéireachta, sonraí pearsanta a phróiseáil chun críocha eile.

(54) The processing of special categories of personal data may be necessary for reasons of public interest in the areas of public health without consent of the data subject. Such processing should be subject to suitable and specific measures so as to protect the rights and freedoms of natural persons. In that context, ‘public health’ should be interpreted as defined in Regulation (EC) No 1338/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council [11], namely all elements related to health, namely health status, including morbidity and disability, the determinants having an effect on that health status, health care needs, resources allocated to health care, the provision of, and universal access to, health care as well as health care expenditure and financing, and the causes of mortality. Such processing of data concerning health for reasons of public interest should not result in personal data being processed for other purposes by third parties such as employers or insurance and banking companies.

(11) Rialachán (CE) Uimh. 1338/2008 ó Pharlaimint na hEorpa agus ón gComhairle an 16 Nollaig 2008 maidir le staidreamh Comhphobail i dtaca leis an tsláinte phoiblí agus i dtaca leis an tsláinte agus leis an tsábháilteacht ag an obair (IO L 354, 31.12.2008, lch. 70). https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/AUTO/?uri=OJ:L:2008:354:TOC

[11] Regulation (EC) No 1338/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2008 on Community statistics on public health and health and safety at work (OJ L 354, 31.12.2008, p. 70). https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/AUTO/?uri=OJ:L:2008:354:TOC

(55) Ina theannta sin, is ar mhaithe le leas an phobail a dhéanann údaráis oifigiúla sonraí pearsanta a phróiseáil chun aidhmeanna na gcomhlachas reiligiúnach atá aitheanta go hoifigiúil a bhaint amach, ar aidhmeanna iad atá leagtha síos le dlí bunreachtúil nó le dlí idirnáisiúnta poiblí.

(55) Moreover, the processing of personal data by official authorities for the purpose of achieving the aims, laid down by constitutional law or by international public law, of officially recognised religious associations, is carried out on grounds of public interest.

(56) I gcás ina gcuireann feidhmiú an chórais dhaonlathaigh i mBallstát, agus é i mbun gníomhaíochtaí toghcháin, de cheangal go dtiomsaíonn páirtithe polaitiúla sonraí pearsanta maidir le tuairimí polaitiúla na ndaoine, féadfar próiseáil sonraí den sórt sin a cheadú ar chúiseanna a bhaineann le leas an phobail, ar choinníoll go mbunaítear coimircí iomchuí.

(56) Where in the course of electoral activities, the operation of the democratic system in a Member State requires that political parties compile personal data on people's political opinions, the processing of such data may be permitted for reasons of public interest, provided that appropriate safeguards are established.

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