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Člen 6 SUVP (GDPR). Zakonitost obdelave

Article 6 GDPR. Lawfulness of processing

1. Obdelava je zakonita le in kolikor je izpolnjen vsaj eden od naslednjih pogojev:

1. Processing shall be lawful only if and to the extent that at least one of the following applies:

(a) posameznik, na katerega se nanašajo osebni podatki, je privolil v obdelavo njegovih osebnih podatkov v enega ali več določenih namenov;

(a) the data subject has given consent to the processing of his or her personal data for one or more specific purposes;

Smernice in sodna praksa Povezana besedila

(b) obdelava je potrebna za izvajanje pogodbe, katere pogodbena stranka je posameznik, na katerega se nanašajo osebni podatki, ali za izvajanje ukrepov na zahtevo takega posameznika pred sklenitvijo pogodbe;

(b) processing is necessary for the performance of a contract to which the data subject is party or in order to take steps at the request of the data subject prior to entering into a contract;

Smernice in sodna praksa Uvodne izjave

(44) Obdelava bi morala biti zakonita, kadar je potrebna v okviru pogodbe ali namena sklenitve pogodbe.

(44) Processing should be lawful where it is necessary in the context of a contract or the intention to enter into a contract.

Povezana besedila

(c) obdelava je potrebna za izpolnitev zakonske obveznosti, ki velja za upravljavca;

(c) processing is necessary for compliance with a legal obligation to which the controller is subject;

Uvodne izjave

(45) Kadar se obdelava izvaja v skladu s pravno obveznostjo, ki velja za upravljavca, ali kadar je obdelava potrebna za izvajanje naloge v javnem interesu ali pri izvajanju javne oblasti, bi morala imeti obdelava podlago v pravu Unije ali pravu države članice. Ta uredba ne zahteva posebnega zakona za vsako posamezno obdelavo. Zadosten je lahko zakon, ki je podlaga za več dejanj obdelave, ki temeljijo na pravni obveznosti, ki velja za upravljavca, ali za primere, ko je obdelava potrebna za izvajanje naloge v javnem interesu ali izvrševanje javne oblasti. V pravu Unije ali pravu držav članic bi moral biti določen tudi namen obdelave. Poleg tega bi bili lahko v navedenem pravu opredeljeni splošni pogoji iz te uredbe, ki urejajo zakonitost obdelave osebnih podatkov, določena natančnejša pravila za določitev upravljavca, vrst osebnih podatkov, ki se obdelujejo, zadevnih posameznikov, na katere se nanašajo osebni podatki, subjektov, katerim se osebni podatki lahko razkrijejo, omejitve namena, roka hranjenja in drugih ukrepov za zagotovitev zakonite in poštene obdelave. Prav tako je naloga prava Unije ali prava držav članic, da določi, ali naj bo upravljavec, ki nalogo izvaja v javnem interesu ali pri izvajanju javne oblasti, javni organ ali druga fizična ali pravna oseba, za katero velja javno pravo, ali, kadar to upravičuje javni interes, tudi v zdravstvene namene kot so javno zdravje in socialna zaščita ter upravljanje storitev zdravstvenega varstva, fizična ali pravna oseba, za katero velja zasebno pravo, kot na primer poklicno združenje.

(45) Where processing is carried out in accordance with a legal obligation to which the controller is subject or where processing is necessary for the performance of a task carried out in the public interest or in the exercise of official authority, the processing should have a basis in Union or Member State law. This Regulation does not require a specific law for each individual processing. A law as a basis for several processing operations based on a legal obligation to which the controller is subject or where processing is necessary for the performance of a task carried out in the public interest or in the exercise of an official authority may be sufficient. It should also be for Union or Member State law to determine the purpose of processing. Furthermore, that law could specify the general conditions of this Regulation governing the lawfulness of personal data processing, establish specifications for determining the controller, the type of personal data which are subject to the processing, the data subjects concerned, the entities to which the personal data may be disclosed, the purpose limitations, the storage period and other measures to ensure lawful and fair processing. It should also be for Union or Member State law to determine whether the controller performing a task carried out in the public interest or in the exercise of official authority should be a public authority or another natural or legal person governed by public law, or, where it is in the public interest to do so, including for health purposes such as public health and social protection and the management of health care services, by private law, such as a professional association.

(d) obdelava je potrebna za zaščito življenjskih interesov posameznika, na katerega se nanašajo osebni podatki, ali druge fizične osebe;

(d) processing is necessary in order to protect the vital interests of the data subject or of another natural person;

Uvodne izjave

(46) Obdelava osebnih podatkov bi se morala prav tako šteti za zakonito, kadar je potrebna za zaščito interesa, ki je bistven za življenje posameznika, na katerega se nanašajo osebni podatki, ali za življenje druge fizične osebe. Obdelava osebnih podatkov na podlagi življenjskih interesov druge fizične osebe bi se načeloma lahko izvajala le, kadar obdelave ni mogoče očitno izvesti na drugi pravni podlagi. Nekatere vrste obdelave lahko služijo tako pomembnim razlogom v javnem interesu kot življenjskim interesom posameznika, na katerega se nanašajo osebni podatki, na primer kadar je obdelava potrebna v humanitarne namene, tudi za spremljanje epidemij in njihovega širjenja ali v izrednih humanitarnih razmerah, zlasti pri naravnih nesrečah in nesrečah, ki jih povzroči človek.

(46) The processing of personal data should also be regarded to be lawful where it is necessary to protect an interest which is essential for the life of the data subject or that of another natural person. Processing of personal data based on the vital interest of another natural person should in principle take place only where the processing cannot be manifestly based on another legal basis. Some types of processing may serve both important grounds of public interest and the vital interests of the data subject as for instance when processing is necessary for humanitarian purposes, including for monitoring epidemics and their spread or in situations of humanitarian emergencies, in particular in situations of natural and man-made disasters.

(e) obdelava je potrebna za opravljanje naloge v javnem interesu ali pri izvajanju javne oblasti, dodeljene upravljavcu;

(e) processing is necessary for the performance of a task carried out in the public interest or in the exercise of official authority vested in the controller;

Smernice in sodna praksa Uvodne izjave

(115) Nekatere tretje države sprejemajo zakone, predpise in druge pravne akte, ki neposredno urejajo dejavnosti obdelave fizičnih in pravnih oseb v pristojnosti držav članic. To lahko vključuje sodbe sodišč ali odločbe upravnih organov tretjih držav, ki od upravljavca ali obdelovalca zahtevajo prenos ali razkritje osebnih podatkov, in ki ne temeljijo na mednarodnem sporazumu, kot je pogodba o medsebojni pravni pomoči, sklenjenem med tretjo državo prosilko in Unijo ali državo članico. Zunajozemeljska uporaba teh zakonov, predpisov in drugih pravnih aktov lahko krši mednarodno pravo in ovira doseganje varstva posameznikov, ki ga v Uniji zagotavlja ta uredba. Prenosi bi smeli biti dovoljeni samo, kadar so izpolnjeni pogoji iz te uredbe za prenos v tretje države. To je lahko med drugim v primeru, kadar je razkritje potrebno zaradi pomembnega javnega interesa, priznanega s pravom Unije ali pravom države članice, ki velja za upravljavca.

(115) Some third countries adopt laws, regulations and other legal acts which purport to directly regulate the processing activities of natural and legal persons under the jurisdiction of the Member States. This may include judgments of courts or tribunals or decisions of administrative authorities in third countries requiring a controller or processor to transfer or disclose personal data, and which are not based on an international agreement, such as a mutual legal assistance treaty, in force between the requesting third country and the Union or a Member State. The extraterritorial application of those laws, regulations and other legal acts may be in breach of international law and may impede the attainment of the protection of natural persons ensured in the Union by this Regulation. Transfers should only be allowed where the conditions of this Regulation for a transfer to third countries are met. This may be the case, inter alia, where disclosure is necessary for an important ground of public interest recognised in Union or Member State law to which the controller is subject.

(f) obdelava je potrebna zaradi zakonitih interesov, za katere si prizadeva upravljavec ali tretja oseba, razen kadar nad takimi interesi prevladajo interesi ali temeljne pravice in svoboščine posameznika, na katerega se nanašajo osebni podatki, ki zahtevajo varstvo osebnih podatkov, zlasti kadar je posameznik, na katerega se nanašajo osebni podatki, otrok.

(f) processing is necessary for the purposes of the legitimate interests pursued by the controller or by a third party, except where such interests are overridden by the interests or fundamental rights and freedoms of the data subject which require protection of personal data, in particular where the data subject is a child.

Smernice in sodna praksa Uvodne izjave

(47) Zakoniti interesi upravljavca, tudi upravljavca, ki se mu osebni podatki lahko razkrijejo, ali tretje osebe lahko predstavljajo pravno podlago za obdelavo, če ne prevladajo interesi ali temeljne pravice in svoboščine posameznika, na katerega se nanašajo osebni podatki, pri čemer se upoštevajo razumna pričakovanja posameznikov, na katere se nanašajo osebni podatki, glede na njihovo razmerje do upravljavca. Tak zakoniti interes lahko na primer obstaja, kadar obstaja zadevno in ustrezno razmerje med posameznikom, na katerega se nanašajo osebni podatki, in upravljavcem, na primer kadar je tak posameznik stranka upravljavca ali dela zanj. V vsakem primeru bi bila za ugotovitev obstoja zakonitega interesa potrebna skrbna ocena, tudi glede tega, ali posameznik, na katerega se nanašajo osebni podatki, lahko v času zbiranja osebnih podatkov in v njegovem okviru razumno pričakuje, da se bodo ti obdelali v zadevni namen. Interesi in temeljne pravice posameznika, na katerega se nanašajo osebni podatki, bi zlasti lahko prevladali nad interesi upravljavca podatkov, kadar se osebni podatki obdelujejo v okoliščinah, ko posamezniki, na katere se nanašajo osebni podatki, razumno ne pričakujejo nadaljnje obdelave. Glede na to, da mora zakonodajalec z zakonom določiti pravno podlago za obdelavo osebnih podatkov s strani javnih organov, ta pravna podlaga ne bi smela veljati za obdelavo s strani javnih organov pri izvajanju njihovih nalog. Tudi obdelava osebnih podatkov, nujno potrebna za preprečevanje zlorab, pomeni zakoniti interes zadevnega upravljavca podatkov. Obdelava osebnih podatkov za neposredno trženje se lahko šteje za opravljeno v zakonitem interesu.

(47) The legitimate interests of a controller, including those of a controller to which the personal data may be disclosed, or of a third party, may provide a legal basis for processing, provided that the interests or the fundamental rights and freedoms of the data subject are not overriding, taking into consideration the reasonable expectations of data subjects based on their relationship with the controller. Such legitimate interest could exist for example where there is a relevant and appropriate relationship between the data subject and the controller in situations such as where the data subject is a client or in the service of the controller. At any rate the existence of a legitimate interest would need careful assessment including whether a data subject can reasonably expect at the time and in the context of the collection of the personal data that processing for that purpose may take place. The interests and fundamental rights of the data subject could in particular override the interest of the data controller where personal data are processed in circumstances where data subjects do not reasonably expect further processing. Given that it is for the legislator to provide by law for the legal basis for public authorities to process personal data, that legal basis should not apply to the processing by public authorities in the performance of their tasks. The processing of personal data strictly necessary for the purposes of preventing fraud also constitutes a legitimate interest of the data controller concerned. The processing of personal data for direct marketing purposes may be regarded as carried out for a legitimate interest.

(48) Upravljavci, ki so del povezane družbe ali institucij, povezanih z osrednjim telesom, lahko imajo zakoniti interes za posredovanje osebnih podatkov znotraj povezane družbe v notranje upravne namene, vključno z obdelavo osebnih podatkov strank ali zaposlenih. To ne vpliva na splošna načela znotraj povezane družbe glede prenosa osebnih podatkov družbi v tretji državi.

(48) Controllers that are part of a group of undertakings or institutions affiliated to a central body may have a legitimate interest in transmitting personal data within the group of undertakings for internal administrative purposes, including the processing of clients' or employees' personal data. The general principles for the transfer of personal data, within a group of undertakings, to an undertaking located in a third country remain unaffected.

(49) Obdelava osebnih podatkov v obsegu, nujno potrebnem in sorazmernem za zagotovitev varnosti omrežja in informacij, tj. zmožnosti omrežja ali informacijskega sistema, da na določeni ravni zaupanja prepreči slučajne dogodke ali nezakonita ali zlonamerna dejanja, ki ogrožajo dostopnost, avtentičnost, celovitost in zaupnost shranjenih ali prenesenih osebnih podatkov ter varnost s tem povezanih storitev, ki jih ponujajo ali so dostopne prek teh omrežij in sistemov, s strani javnih organov, skupin za odzivanje na računalniške grožnje, skupin za odzivanje na računalniške varnostne incidente, ponudnikov elektronskih komunikacijskih omrežij in storitev ter ponudnikov varnostnih tehnologij in storitev pomeni zakoniti interes zadevnega upravljavca podatkov. To bi lahko vključevalo na primer preprečevanje nepooblaščenega dostopa do elektronskih komunikacijskih omrežij, širjenja zlonamernih kod, napadov, ki povzročajo zavrnitev storitve, ter škode na računalniških in elektronskih komunikacijskih sistemih.

(49) The processing of personal data to the extent strictly necessary and proportionate for the purposes of ensuring network and information security, i.e. the ability of a network or an information system to resist, at a given level of confidence, accidental events or unlawful or malicious actions that compromise the availability, authenticity, integrity and confidentiality of stored or transmitted personal data, and the security of the related services offered by, or accessible via, those networks and systems, by public authorities, by computer emergency response teams (CERTs), computer security incident response teams (CSIRTs), by providers of electronic communications networks and services and by providers of security technologies and services, constitutes a legitimate interest of the data controller concerned. This could, for example, include preventing unauthorised access to electronic communications networks and malicious code distribution and stopping ‘denial of service’ attacks and damage to computer and electronic communication systems.

Točka (f) prvega pododstavka se ne uporablja za obdelavo s strani javnih organov pri opravljanju njihovih nalog.

Point (f) of the first subparagraph shall not apply to processing carried out by public authorities in the performance of their tasks.

Uvodne izjave

(40) Da bi bila obdelava zakonita, bi morali biti osebni podatki obdelani na podlagi privolitve zadevnega posameznika, na katerega se nanašajo osebni podatki, ali na kateri drugi zakoniti podlagi, določeni z zakonom, bodisi v tej uredbi ali drugem predpisu Unije ali države članice, kakor je navedeno v tej uredbi, vključno s potrebo po skladnosti s pravno obveznostjo, ki velja za upravljavca, ali potrebo po izvajanju pogodbe, katere pogodbena stranka je posameznik, na katerega se nanašajo osebni podatki, ali izvajanju ukrepov na zahtevo posameznika, na katerega se nanašajo osebni podatki, pred sklenitvijo pogodbe.

(40) In order for processing to be lawful, personal data should be processed on the basis of the consent of the data subject concerned or some other legitimate basis, laid down by law, either in this Regulation or in other Union or Member State law as referred to in this Regulation, including the necessity for compliance with the legal obligation to which the controller is subject or the necessity for the performance of a contract to which the data subject is party or in order to take steps at the request of the data subject prior to entering into a contract.

(50) Obdelava osebnih podatkov za druge namene kot tiste, za katere so bili osebni podatki prvotno zbrani, bi morala biti dovoljena le, kadar je združljiva z nameni, za katere so bili osebni podatki prvotno zbrani. V takšnem primeru ni potrebna ločena pravna podlaga od tiste, na podlagi katere so bili osebni podatki zbrani. Če je obdelava potrebna za izvajanje naloge v javnem interesu ali pri izvajanju javne oblasti, dodeljene upravljavcu, se lahko naloge in nameni, za katere bi se nadaljnja obdelava morala šteti za združljivo in zakonito, določijo in opredelijo s pravom Unije ali pravom držav članic. Nadaljnja obdelava v namene arhiviranja v javnem interesu, znanstveno- ali zgodovinskoraziskovalne namene ali statistične namene bi morala veljati za združljivo zakonito dejanje obdelave. Pravna podlaga, ki se za obdelavo osebnih podatkov določi s pravom Unije ali pravom držav članic, je lahko tudi pravna podlaga za nadaljnjo obdelavo. Za ugotovitev, ali je namen nadaljnje obdelave združljiv z namenom, za katerega so bili osebni podatki prvotno zbrani, bi moral upravljavec, potem ko je izpolnil vse zahteve glede zakonitosti prvotne obdelave, med drugim upoštevati morebitno povezavo med prvotnimi nameni in nameni načrtovane nadaljnje obdelave; okoliščine, v katerih so bili osebni podatki zbrani, zlasti razumna pričakovanja posameznikov, na katere se nanašajo osebni podatki, o nadaljnji uporabi teh podatkov ob upoštevanju njihovega razmerja z upravljavcem; naravo osebnih podatkov; posledice načrtovane nadaljnje obdelave za te posameznike in obstoj ustreznih zaščitnih ukrepov, tako pri prvotnih kot načrtovanih nadaljnjih dejanjih obdelave.

(50) The processing of personal data for purposes other than those for which the personal data were initially collected should be allowed only where the processing is compatible with the purposes for which the personal data were initially collected. In such a case, no legal basis separate from that which allowed the collection of the personal data is required. If the processing is necessary for the performance of a task carried out in the public interest or in the exercise of official authority vested in the controller, Union or Member State law may determine and specify the tasks and purposes for which the further processing should be regarded as compatible and lawful. Further processing for archiving purposes in the public interest, scientific or historical research purposes or statistical purposes should be considered to be compatible lawful processing operations. The legal basis provided by Union or Member State law for the processing of personal data may also provide a legal basis for further processing. In order to ascertain whether a purpose of further processing is compatible with the purpose for which the personal data are initially collected, the controller, after having met all the requirements for the lawfulness of the original processing, should take into account, inter alia: any link between those purposes and the purposes of the intended further processing; the context in which the personal data have been collected, in particular the reasonable expectations of data subjects based on their relationship with the controller as to their further use; the nature of the personal data; the consequences of the intended further processing for data subjects; and the existence of appropriate safeguards in both the original and intended further processing operations.

Kadar je posameznik, na katerega se nanašajo osebni podatki, privolil ali če obdelava temelji na pravu Unije ali pravu države članice, kar je potreben in sorazmeren ukrep v demokratični družbi za varovanje zlasti pomembnih ciljev v splošnem javnem interesu, bi moralo biti upravljavcu dovoljeno, da nadalje obdeluje osebne podatke, ne glede na združljivost namenov. V vsakem primeru bi bilo treba zagotoviti uporabo načel iz te uredbe in zlasti obveščanje posameznika, na katerega se nanašajo osebni podatki, o teh drugih namenih in njegovih pravicah, tudi o pravici do ugovora. Za opozorila s strani upravljavca na morebitna kazniva dejanja ali grožnje javni varnosti in posredovanje zadevnih osebnih podatkov v posameznih primerih ali v več primerih, ki se nanašajo na isto kaznivo dejanje ali grožnje javni varnosti, pristojnemu organu bi moralo veljati, da so v zakonitem interesu, za katerega si prizadeva upravljavec. Takšno posredovanje v zakonitem interesu upravljavca ali nadaljnja obdelava osebnih podatkov pa bi morala biti prepovedana, če obdelava ni združljiva z obveznostjo varovanja pravne ali poklicne skrivnosti ali drugo zavezujočo obveznostjo varovanja skrivnosti.

Where the data subject has given consent or the processing is based on Union or Member State law which constitutes a necessary and proportionate measure in a democratic society to safeguard, in particular, important objectives of general public interest, the controller should be allowed to further process the personal data irrespective of the compatibility of the purposes. In any case, the application of the principles set out in this Regulation and in particular the information of the data subject on those other purposes and on his or her rights including the right to object, should be ensured. Indicating possible criminal acts or threats to public security by the controller and transmitting the relevant personal data in individual cases or in several cases relating to the same criminal act or threats to public security to a competent authority should be regarded as being in the legitimate interest pursued by the controller. However, such transmission in the legitimate interest of the controller or further processing of personal data should be prohibited if the processing is not compatible with a legal, professional or other binding obligation of secrecy.

2. Države članice lahko ohranijo ali uvedejo podrobnejše določbe, da bi prilagodile uporabo pravil te uredbe v zvezi z obdelavo osebnih podatkov za zagotovitev skladnosti s točkama (c) in (e) odstavka 1, tako da podrobneje opredelijo posebne zahteve v zvezi z obdelavo ter druge ukrepe za zagotovitev zakonite in poštene obdelave, tudi za druge posebne primere obdelave iz poglavja IX.

2. Member States may maintain or introduce more specific provisions to adapt the application of the rules of this Regulation with regard to processing for compliance with points (c) and (e) of paragraph 1 by determining more precisely specific requirements for the processing and other measures to ensure lawful and fair processing including for other specific processing situations as provided for in Chapter IX.

3. Podlaga za obdelavo iz točk (c) in (e) odstavka 1 je določena v skladu s:

3. The basis for the processing referred to in point (c) and (e) of paragraph 1 shall be laid down by:

(a) pravom Unije; ali

(a) Union law; or

(b) pravom države članice, ki velja za upravljavca.

(b) Member State law to which the controller is subject.

Namen obdelave se določi v navedeni pravni podlagi ali pa je ta v primeru obdelave iz točke (e) odstavka 1 potrebna za opravljanje naloge, ki se izvaja v javnem interesu, ali pri izvajanju javne oblasti, dodeljene upravljavcu. Navedena pravna podlaga lahko vključuje posebne določbe, s katerimi se prilagodi uporaba pravil iz te uredbe, med drugim: splošne pogoje, ki urejajo zakonitost obdelave podatkov s strani upravljavca; vrste podatkov, ki se obdelujejo; zadevne posameznike, na katere se nanašajo osebni podatki; subjekte, katerim se osebni podatki lahko razkrijejo, in namene, za katere se lahko razkrijejo; omejitve namena; obdobja hrambe; ter dejanja obdelave in postopke obdelave, vključno z ukrepi za zagotovitev zakonite in poštene obdelave, kot tiste za druge posebne primere obdelave iz poglavja IX. Pravo Unije ali pravo države članice izpolnjuje cilj javnega interesa in je sorazmerno z zakonitim ciljem, za katerega si prizadeva.

The purpose of the processing shall be determined in that legal basis or, as regards the processing referred to in point (e) of paragraph 1, shall be necessary for the performance of a task carried out in the public interest or in the exercise of official authority vested in the controller. That legal basis may contain specific provisions to adapt the application of rules of this Regulation, inter alia: the general conditions governing the lawfulness of processing by the controller; the types of data which are subject to the processing; the data subjects concerned; the entities to, and the purposes for which, the personal data may be disclosed; the purpose limitation; storage periods; and processing operations and processing procedures, including measures to ensure lawful and fair processing such as those for other specific processing situations as provided for in Chapter IX. The Union or the Member State law shall meet an objective of public interest and be proportionate to the legitimate aim pursued.

Uvodne izjave

(41) Kadar je v tej uredbi sklicevanje na pravno podlago ali zakonodajni ukrep, v ta namen ni nujno potreben zakonodajni akt, ki bi ga sprejel parlament, brez poseganja v zahteve v skladu z ustavnim redom zadevne države članice. Vendar bi morala biti takšna pravna podlaga ali zakonodajni ukrep jasna in natančna, njena oziroma njegova uporaba pa predvidljiva za osebe, na katere se nanašata, v skladu s sodno prakso Sodišča Evropske unije (v nadaljnjem besedilu: Sodišče) in Evropskega sodišča za človekove pravice.

(41) Where this Regulation refers to a legal basis or a legislative measure, this does not necessarily require a legislative act adopted by a parliament, without prejudice to requirements pursuant to the constitutional order of the Member State concerned. However, such a legal basis or legislative measure should be clear and precise and its application should be foreseeable to persons subject to it, in accordance with the case-law of the Court of Justice of the European Union (the ‘Court of Justice’) and the European Court of Human Rights.

4. Kadar obdelava podatkov za drug namen kot za tistega, za katerega so bili osebni podatki zbrani, ne temelji na privolitvi posameznika, na katerega se nanašajo osebni podatki, ali na pravu Unije ali pravu države članice, kar predstavlja potreben in sorazmeren ukrep v demokratični družbi za uresničevanje ciljev iz člena 23(1), upravljavec, da bi ocenil, ali je obdelava za drug namen združljiva z namenom, za katerega so bili osebni podatki prvotno zbrani, med drugim upošteva:

4. Where the processing for a purpose other than that for which the personal data have been collected is not based on the data subject’s consent or on a Union or Member State law which constitutes a necessary and proportionate measure in a democratic society to safeguard the objectives referred to in Article 23(1), the controller shall, in order to ascertain whether processing for another purpose is compatible with the purpose for which the personal data are initially collected, take into account, inter alia:

(a) kakršno koli povezavo med nameni, za katere so bili osebni podatki zbrani, in nameni načrtovane nadaljnje obdelave;

(a) any link between the purposes for which the personal data have been collected and the purposes of the intended further processing;

(b) okoliščine, v katerih so bili osebni podatki zbrani, zlasti kar zadeva razmerje med posamezniki, na katere se nanašajo osebni podatki, in upravljavcem;

(b) the context in which the personal data have been collected, in particular regarding the relationship between data subjects and the controller;

(c) naravo osebnih podatkov, zlasti ali se obdelujejo posebne vrste osebnih podatkov v skladu s členom 9 ali pa se obdelujejo osebni podatki v zvezi s kazenskimi obsodbami in prekrški v skladu s členom 10;

(c) the nature of the personal data, in particular whether special categories of personal data are processed, pursuant to Article 9, or whether personal data related to criminal convictions and offences are processed, pursuant to Article 10;

(d) morebitne posledice načrtovane nadaljnje obdelave za posameznike, na katere se nanašajo osebni podatki;

(d) the possible consequences of the intended further processing for data subjects;

(e) obstoj ustreznih zaščitnih ukrepov, ki lahko vključujejo šifriranje ali psevdonimizacijo.

(e) the existence of appropriate safeguards, which may include encryption or pseudonymisation.

ISO 27701

(EN) ISO/IEC 27701, adopted in 2019, added additional ISO/IEC 27002 guidance for PII controllers.

Here is the relevant paragraph to article 6(4)(e) GDPR:

7.4.5 PII de-identification and deletion at the end of processing

Control

The organization should either delete PII or render it in a form which does not permit identification or re-identification of PII principals, as soon as the original PII is no longer necessary for the identified purpose(s).

(EN) […]


to read the full text

ISO 27701 Uvodne izjave Smernice in sodna praksa Povezana besedila Pustite komentar
ISO 27701

(EN) ISO/IEC 27701, adopted in 2019, added additional ISO/IEC 27002 guidance for PII controllers.

Here is the relevant paragraph to article 6 GDPR:

7.2.2 Identify lawful basis

Control

The organization should determine, document and comply with the relevant lawful basis for the processing of PII for the identified purposes.

Implementation guidance

Some jurisdictions require the organization to be able to demonstrate that the lawfulness of processing was duly established before the processing.

The legal basis for the processing of PII can include:

(EN) […]


to read the full text

Uvodne izjave

(40) Da bi bila obdelava zakonita, bi morali biti osebni podatki obdelani na podlagi privolitve zadevnega posameznika, na katerega se nanašajo osebni podatki, ali na kateri drugi zakoniti podlagi, določeni z zakonom, bodisi v tej uredbi ali drugem predpisu Unije ali države članice, kakor je navedeno v tej uredbi, vključno s potrebo po skladnosti s pravno obveznostjo, ki velja za upravljavca, ali potrebo po izvajanju pogodbe, katere pogodbena stranka je posameznik, na katerega se nanašajo osebni podatki, ali izvajanju ukrepov na zahtevo posameznika, na katerega se nanašajo osebni podatki, pred sklenitvijo pogodbe.

(40) In order for processing to be lawful, personal data should be processed on the basis of the consent of the data subject concerned or some other legitimate basis, laid down by law, either in this Regulation or in other Union or Member State law as referred to in this Regulation, including the necessity for compliance with the legal obligation to which the controller is subject or the necessity for the performance of a contract to which the data subject is party or in order to take steps at the request of the data subject prior to entering into a contract.

(41) Kadar je v tej uredbi sklicevanje na pravno podlago ali zakonodajni ukrep, v ta namen ni nujno potreben zakonodajni akt, ki bi ga sprejel parlament, brez poseganja v zahteve v skladu z ustavnim redom zadevne države članice. Vendar bi morala biti takšna pravna podlaga ali zakonodajni ukrep jasna in natančna, njena oziroma njegova uporaba pa predvidljiva za osebe, na katere se nanašata, v skladu s sodno prakso Sodišča Evropske unije (v nadaljnjem besedilu: Sodišče) in Evropskega sodišča za človekove pravice.

(41) Where this Regulation refers to a legal basis or a legislative measure, this does not necessarily require a legislative act adopted by a parliament, without prejudice to requirements pursuant to the constitutional order of the Member State concerned. However, such a legal basis or legislative measure should be clear and precise and its application should be foreseeable to persons subject to it, in accordance with the case-law of the Court of Justice of the European Union (the ‘Court of Justice’) and the European Court of Human Rights.

(42) Kadar obdelava temelji na privolitvi posameznika, na katerega se nanašajo osebni podatki, bi moral biti upravljavec zmožen dokazati, da je posameznik, na katerega se nanašajo osebni podatki, privolil v dejanje obdelave. Zlasti v okviru pisne izjave o drugi zadevi bi morali zaščitni ukrepi zagotoviti, da se posameznik, na katerega se nanašajo osebni podatki, zaveda dejstva, da daje privolitev in v kakšnem obsegu jo daje. V skladu z Direktivo Sveta 93/13/EGS (10) bi moral upravljavec vnaprej pripraviti izjavo o privolitvi, ki bi morala biti v razumljivi in lahko dostopni obliki ter jasnem in preprostem jeziku in ne bi smela vsebovati nedovoljenih pogojev. Da bi posameznik, na katerega se nanašajo osebni podatki, lahko dal ozaveščeno privolitev, bi moral poznati vsaj identiteto upravljavca in namene obdelave osebnih podatkov. Privolitev se ne bi smela šteti za prostovoljno, če posameznik, na katerega se nanašajo osebni podatki, nima možnosti dejanske ali prostovoljne izbire ali privolitve ne more zavrniti ali preklicati brez škode.

(42) Where processing is based on the data subject's consent, the controller should be able to demonstrate that the data subject has given consent to the processing operation. In particular in the context of a written declaration on another matter, safeguards should ensure that the data subject is aware of the fact that and the extent to which consent is given. In accordance with Council Directive 93/13/EEC [10] a declaration of consent pre-formulated by the controller should be provided in an intelligible and easily accessible form, using clear and plain language and it should not contain unfair terms. For consent to be informed, the data subject should be aware at least of the identity of the controller and the purposes of the processing for which the personal data are intended. Consent should not be regarded as freely given if the data subject has no genuine or free choice or is unable to refuse or withdraw consent without detriment.

(10) Direktiva Sveta 93/13/EGS z dne 5. aprila 1993 o nedovoljenih pogojih v potrošniških pogodbah (UL L 95, 21.4.1993, str. 29). https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/AUTO/?uri=OJ:L:1993:095:TOC

[10] Council Directive 93/13/EEC of 5 April 1993 on unfair terms in consumer contracts (OJ L 95, 21.4.1993, p. 29). https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/AUTO/?uri=OJ:L:1993:095:TOC

(43) Za zagotovitev, da je privolitev dana prostovoljno, privolitev ne bi smela biti veljavna pravna podlaga za obdelavo osebnih podatkov v posebnem primeru, ko obstaja očitno neravnotežje med posameznikom, na katerega se nanašajo osebni podatki, in upravljavcem, zlasti kadar je upravljavec javni organ in je zato malo verjetno, da je bila privolitev dana prostovoljno v vseh okoliščinah te specifične situacije. Za privolitev se domneva, da ni dana prostovoljno, če ne dovoljuje ločene privolitve za različna dejanja obdelave osebnih podatkov, čeprav bi taka ločena privolitev bila v posameznem primeru ustrezna, ali če je izvajanje pogodbe, vključno z zagotavljanjem storitve, pogojeno s privolitvijo, čeprav za zadevno izvajanje taka privolitev ne bi bila potrebna.

(43) In order to ensure that consent is freely given, consent should not provide a valid legal ground for the processing of personal data in a specific case where there is a clear imbalance between the data subject and the controller, in particular where the controller is a public authority and it is therefore unlikely that consent was freely given in all the circumstances of that specific situation. Consent is presumed not to be freely given if it does not allow separate consent to be given to different personal data processing operations despite it being appropriate in the individual case, or if the performance of a contract, including the provision of a service, is dependent on the consent despite such consent not being necessary for such performance.

(44) Obdelava bi morala biti zakonita, kadar je potrebna v okviru pogodbe ali namena sklenitve pogodbe.

(44) Processing should be lawful where it is necessary in the context of a contract or the intention to enter into a contract.

(45) Kadar se obdelava izvaja v skladu s pravno obveznostjo, ki velja za upravljavca, ali kadar je obdelava potrebna za izvajanje naloge v javnem interesu ali pri izvajanju javne oblasti, bi morala imeti obdelava podlago v pravu Unije ali pravu države članice. Ta uredba ne zahteva posebnega zakona za vsako posamezno obdelavo. Zadosten je lahko zakon, ki je podlaga za več dejanj obdelave, ki temeljijo na pravni obveznosti, ki velja za upravljavca, ali za primere, ko je obdelava potrebna za izvajanje naloge v javnem interesu ali izvrševanje javne oblasti. V pravu Unije ali pravu držav članic bi moral biti določen tudi namen obdelave. Poleg tega bi bili lahko v navedenem pravu opredeljeni splošni pogoji iz te uredbe, ki urejajo zakonitost obdelave osebnih podatkov, določena natančnejša pravila za določitev upravljavca, vrst osebnih podatkov, ki se obdelujejo, zadevnih posameznikov, na katere se nanašajo osebni podatki, subjektov, katerim se osebni podatki lahko razkrijejo, omejitve namena, roka hranjenja in drugih ukrepov za zagotovitev zakonite in poštene obdelave. Prav tako je naloga prava Unije ali prava držav članic, da določi, ali naj bo upravljavec, ki nalogo izvaja v javnem interesu ali pri izvajanju javne oblasti, javni organ ali druga fizična ali pravna oseba, za katero velja javno pravo, ali, kadar to upravičuje javni interes, tudi v zdravstvene namene kot so javno zdravje in socialna zaščita ter upravljanje storitev zdravstvenega varstva, fizična ali pravna oseba, za katero velja zasebno pravo, kot na primer poklicno združenje.

(45) Where processing is carried out in accordance with a legal obligation to which the controller is subject or where processing is necessary for the performance of a task carried out in the public interest or in the exercise of official authority, the processing should have a basis in Union or Member State law. This Regulation does not require a specific law for each individual processing. A law as a basis for several processing operations based on a legal obligation to which the controller is subject or where processing is necessary for the performance of a task carried out in the public interest or in the exercise of an official authority may be sufficient. It should also be for Union or Member State law to determine the purpose of processing. Furthermore, that law could specify the general conditions of this Regulation governing the lawfulness of personal data processing, establish specifications for determining the controller, the type of personal data which are subject to the processing, the data subjects concerned, the entities to which the personal data may be disclosed, the purpose limitations, the storage period and other measures to ensure lawful and fair processing. It should also be for Union or Member State law to determine whether the controller performing a task carried out in the public interest or in the exercise of official authority should be a public authority or another natural or legal person governed by public law, or, where it is in the public interest to do so, including for health purposes such as public health and social protection and the management of health care services, by private law, such as a professional association.

(46) Obdelava osebnih podatkov bi se morala prav tako šteti za zakonito, kadar je potrebna za zaščito interesa, ki je bistven za življenje posameznika, na katerega se nanašajo osebni podatki, ali za življenje druge fizične osebe. Obdelava osebnih podatkov na podlagi življenjskih interesov druge fizične osebe bi se načeloma lahko izvajala le, kadar obdelave ni mogoče očitno izvesti na drugi pravni podlagi. Nekatere vrste obdelave lahko služijo tako pomembnim razlogom v javnem interesu kot življenjskim interesom posameznika, na katerega se nanašajo osebni podatki, na primer kadar je obdelava potrebna v humanitarne namene, tudi za spremljanje epidemij in njihovega širjenja ali v izrednih humanitarnih razmerah, zlasti pri naravnih nesrečah in nesrečah, ki jih povzroči človek.

(46) The processing of personal data should also be regarded to be lawful where it is necessary to protect an interest which is essential for the life of the data subject or that of another natural person. Processing of personal data based on the vital interest of another natural person should in principle take place only where the processing cannot be manifestly based on another legal basis. Some types of processing may serve both important grounds of public interest and the vital interests of the data subject as for instance when processing is necessary for humanitarian purposes, including for monitoring epidemics and their spread or in situations of humanitarian emergencies, in particular in situations of natural and man-made disasters.

(47) Zakoniti interesi upravljavca, tudi upravljavca, ki se mu osebni podatki lahko razkrijejo, ali tretje osebe lahko predstavljajo pravno podlago za obdelavo, če ne prevladajo interesi ali temeljne pravice in svoboščine posameznika, na katerega se nanašajo osebni podatki, pri čemer se upoštevajo razumna pričakovanja posameznikov, na katere se nanašajo osebni podatki, glede na njihovo razmerje do upravljavca. Tak zakoniti interes lahko na primer obstaja, kadar obstaja zadevno in ustrezno razmerje med posameznikom, na katerega se nanašajo osebni podatki, in upravljavcem, na primer kadar je tak posameznik stranka upravljavca ali dela zanj. V vsakem primeru bi bila za ugotovitev obstoja zakonitega interesa potrebna skrbna ocena, tudi glede tega, ali posameznik, na katerega se nanašajo osebni podatki, lahko v času zbiranja osebnih podatkov in v njegovem okviru razumno pričakuje, da se bodo ti obdelali v zadevni namen. Interesi in temeljne pravice posameznika, na katerega se nanašajo osebni podatki, bi zlasti lahko prevladali nad interesi upravljavca podatkov, kadar se osebni podatki obdelujejo v okoliščinah, ko posamezniki, na katere se nanašajo osebni podatki, razumno ne pričakujejo nadaljnje obdelave. Glede na to, da mora zakonodajalec z zakonom določiti pravno podlago za obdelavo osebnih podatkov s strani javnih organov, ta pravna podlaga ne bi smela veljati za obdelavo s strani javnih organov pri izvajanju njihovih nalog. Tudi obdelava osebnih podatkov, nujno potrebna za preprečevanje zlorab, pomeni zakoniti interes zadevnega upravljavca podatkov. Obdelava osebnih podatkov za neposredno trženje se lahko šteje za opravljeno v zakonitem interesu.

(47) The legitimate interests of a controller, including those of a controller to which the personal data may be disclosed, or of a third party, may provide a legal basis for processing, provided that the interests or the fundamental rights and freedoms of the data subject are not overriding, taking into consideration the reasonable expectations of data subjects based on their relationship with the controller. Such legitimate interest could exist for example where there is a relevant and appropriate relationship between the data subject and the controller in situations such as where the data subject is a client or in the service of the controller. At any rate the existence of a legitimate interest would need careful assessment including whether a data subject can reasonably expect at the time and in the context of the collection of the personal data that processing for that purpose may take place. The interests and fundamental rights of the data subject could in particular override the interest of the data controller where personal data are processed in circumstances where data subjects do not reasonably expect further processing. Given that it is for the legislator to provide by law for the legal basis for public authorities to process personal data, that legal basis should not apply to the processing by public authorities in the performance of their tasks. The processing of personal data strictly necessary for the purposes of preventing fraud also constitutes a legitimate interest of the data controller concerned. The processing of personal data for direct marketing purposes may be regarded as carried out for a legitimate interest.

(48) Upravljavci, ki so del povezane družbe ali institucij, povezanih z osrednjim telesom, lahko imajo zakoniti interes za posredovanje osebnih podatkov znotraj povezane družbe v notranje upravne namene, vključno z obdelavo osebnih podatkov strank ali zaposlenih. To ne vpliva na splošna načela znotraj povezane družbe glede prenosa osebnih podatkov družbi v tretji državi.

(48) Controllers that are part of a group of undertakings or institutions affiliated to a central body may have a legitimate interest in transmitting personal data within the group of undertakings for internal administrative purposes, including the processing of clients' or employees' personal data. The general principles for the transfer of personal data, within a group of undertakings, to an undertaking located in a third country remain unaffected.

(49) Obdelava osebnih podatkov v obsegu, nujno potrebnem in sorazmernem za zagotovitev varnosti omrežja in informacij, tj. zmožnosti omrežja ali informacijskega sistema, da na določeni ravni zaupanja prepreči slučajne dogodke ali nezakonita ali zlonamerna dejanja, ki ogrožajo dostopnost, avtentičnost, celovitost in zaupnost shranjenih ali prenesenih osebnih podatkov ter varnost s tem povezanih storitev, ki jih ponujajo ali so dostopne prek teh omrežij in sistemov, s strani javnih organov, skupin za odzivanje na računalniške grožnje, skupin za odzivanje na računalniške varnostne incidente, ponudnikov elektronskih komunikacijskih omrežij in storitev ter ponudnikov varnostnih tehnologij in storitev pomeni zakoniti interes zadevnega upravljavca podatkov. To bi lahko vključevalo na primer preprečevanje nepooblaščenega dostopa do elektronskih komunikacijskih omrežij, širjenja zlonamernih kod, napadov, ki povzročajo zavrnitev storitve, ter škode na računalniških in elektronskih komunikacijskih sistemih.

(49) The processing of personal data to the extent strictly necessary and proportionate for the purposes of ensuring network and information security, i.e. the ability of a network or an information system to resist, at a given level of confidence, accidental events or unlawful or malicious actions that compromise the availability, authenticity, integrity and confidentiality of stored or transmitted personal data, and the security of the related services offered by, or accessible via, those networks and systems, by public authorities, by computer emergency response teams (CERTs), computer security incident response teams (CSIRTs), by providers of electronic communications networks and services and by providers of security technologies and services, constitutes a legitimate interest of the data controller concerned. This could, for example, include preventing unauthorised access to electronic communications networks and malicious code distribution and stopping ‘denial of service’ attacks and damage to computer and electronic communication systems.

(50) Obdelava osebnih podatkov za druge namene kot tiste, za katere so bili osebni podatki prvotno zbrani, bi morala biti dovoljena le, kadar je združljiva z nameni, za katere so bili osebni podatki prvotno zbrani. V takšnem primeru ni potrebna ločena pravna podlaga od tiste, na podlagi katere so bili osebni podatki zbrani. Če je obdelava potrebna za izvajanje naloge v javnem interesu ali pri izvajanju javne oblasti, dodeljene upravljavcu, se lahko naloge in nameni, za katere bi se nadaljnja obdelava morala šteti za združljivo in zakonito, določijo in opredelijo s pravom Unije ali pravom držav članic. Nadaljnja obdelava v namene arhiviranja v javnem interesu, znanstveno- ali zgodovinskoraziskovalne namene ali statistične namene bi morala veljati za združljivo zakonito dejanje obdelave. Pravna podlaga, ki se za obdelavo osebnih podatkov določi s pravom Unije ali pravom držav članic, je lahko tudi pravna podlaga za nadaljnjo obdelavo. Za ugotovitev, ali je namen nadaljnje obdelave združljiv z namenom, za katerega so bili osebni podatki prvotno zbrani, bi moral upravljavec, potem ko je izpolnil vse zahteve glede zakonitosti prvotne obdelave, med drugim upoštevati morebitno povezavo med prvotnimi nameni in nameni načrtovane nadaljnje obdelave; okoliščine, v katerih so bili osebni podatki zbrani, zlasti razumna pričakovanja posameznikov, na katere se nanašajo osebni podatki, o nadaljnji uporabi teh podatkov ob upoštevanju njihovega razmerja z upravljavcem; naravo osebnih podatkov; posledice načrtovane nadaljnje obdelave za te posameznike in obstoj ustreznih zaščitnih ukrepov, tako pri prvotnih kot načrtovanih nadaljnjih dejanjih obdelave.

(50) The processing of personal data for purposes other than those for which the personal data were initially collected should be allowed only where the processing is compatible with the purposes for which the personal data were initially collected. In such a case, no legal basis separate from that which allowed the collection of the personal data is required. If the processing is necessary for the performance of a task carried out in the public interest or in the exercise of official authority vested in the controller, Union or Member State law may determine and specify the tasks and purposes for which the further processing should be regarded as compatible and lawful. Further processing for archiving purposes in the public interest, scientific or historical research purposes or statistical purposes should be considered to be compatible lawful processing operations. The legal basis provided by Union or Member State law for the processing of personal data may also provide a legal basis for further processing. In order to ascertain whether a purpose of further processing is compatible with the purpose for which the personal data are initially collected, the controller, after having met all the requirements for the lawfulness of the original processing, should take into account, inter alia: any link between those purposes and the purposes of the intended further processing; the context in which the personal data have been collected, in particular the reasonable expectations of data subjects based on their relationship with the controller as to their further use; the nature of the personal data; the consequences of the intended further processing for data subjects; and the existence of appropriate safeguards in both the original and intended further processing operations.

Kadar je posameznik, na katerega se nanašajo osebni podatki, privolil ali če obdelava temelji na pravu Unije ali pravu države članice, kar je potreben in sorazmeren ukrep v demokratični družbi za varovanje zlasti pomembnih ciljev v splošnem javnem interesu, bi moralo biti upravljavcu dovoljeno, da nadalje obdeluje osebne podatke, ne glede na združljivost namenov. V vsakem primeru bi bilo treba zagotoviti uporabo načel iz te uredbe in zlasti obveščanje posameznika, na katerega se nanašajo osebni podatki, o teh drugih namenih in njegovih pravicah, tudi o pravici do ugovora. Za opozorila s strani upravljavca na morebitna kazniva dejanja ali grožnje javni varnosti in posredovanje zadevnih osebnih podatkov v posameznih primerih ali v več primerih, ki se nanašajo na isto kaznivo dejanje ali grožnje javni varnosti, pristojnemu organu bi moralo veljati, da so v zakonitem interesu, za katerega si prizadeva upravljavec. Takšno posredovanje v zakonitem interesu upravljavca ali nadaljnja obdelava osebnih podatkov pa bi morala biti prepovedana, če obdelava ni združljiva z obveznostjo varovanja pravne ali poklicne skrivnosti ali drugo zavezujočo obveznostjo varovanja skrivnosti.

Where the data subject has given consent or the processing is based on Union or Member State law which constitutes a necessary and proportionate measure in a democratic society to safeguard, in particular, important objectives of general public interest, the controller should be allowed to further process the personal data irrespective of the compatibility of the purposes. In any case, the application of the principles set out in this Regulation and in particular the information of the data subject on those other purposes and on his or her rights including the right to object, should be ensured. Indicating possible criminal acts or threats to public security by the controller and transmitting the relevant personal data in individual cases or in several cases relating to the same criminal act or threats to public security to a competent authority should be regarded as being in the legitimate interest pursued by the controller. However, such transmission in the legitimate interest of the controller or further processing of personal data should be prohibited if the processing is not compatible with a legal, professional or other binding obligation of secrecy.

(155) V pravu držav članic ali kolektivnih pogodbah, vključno s „pogodbami na ravni podjetij“, so lahko določena posebna pravila o obdelavi osebnih podatkov zaposlenih v okviru zaposlitve, zlasti za pogoje, pod katerimi se lahko obdelujejo osebni podatki v okviru zaposlitve na podlagi privolitve zaposlenega, v namene zaposlovanja, izvajanja pogodbe o zaposlitvi, vključno z izpolnjevanjem obveznosti, določenih z zakonom ali kolektivnimi pogodbami, upravljanja, načrtovanja in organizacije dela, enakosti in raznolikosti na delovnem mestu, zdravja in varnosti pri delu, za namene individualnega ali kolektivnega izvajanja in uživanja pravic in ugodnosti, povezanih z zaposlitvijo, ter za namene prekinitve delovnega razmerja.

(155) Member State law or collective agreements, including ‘works agreements’, may provide for specific rules on the processing of employees' personal data in the employment context, in particular for the conditions under which personal data in the employment context may be processed on the basis of the consent of the employee, the purposes of the recruitment, the performance of the contract of employment, including discharge of obligations laid down by law or by collective agreements, management, planning and organisation of work, equality and diversity in the workplace, health and safety at work, and for the purposes of the exercise and enjoyment, on an individual or collective basis, of rights and benefits related to employment, and for the purpose of the termination of the employment relationship.

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