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3 pants VDAR. Teritoriālā darbības joma

Article 3 GDPR. Territorial scope

1. Šo regulu piemēro personas datu apstrādei saistībā ar darbībām, ko veic pārziņa vai apstrādātāja uzņēmējdarbības vietā Savienībā, neatkarīgi no tā, vai apstrāde notiek vai nenotiek Savienībā.

1. This Regulation applies to the processing of personal data in the context of the activities of an establishment of a controller or a processor in the Union, regardless of whether the processing takes place in the Union or not.

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(22) Personas datu apstrādei, kas notiek saistībā ar darbībām, ko veic pārziņa vai apstrādātāja uzņēmējdarbībā Savienībā, būtu jānotiek saskaņā ar šo regulu neatkarīgi no tā, vai pati apstrāde notiek Savienībā. Uzņēmējdarbības veikšana nozīmē efektīvu un faktisku darbību, ko veic pastāvīga vienība. Šādas vienības juridiskā forma neatkarīgi no tā, vai tā ir filiāle vai meitasuzņēmums ar juridiskas personas statusu, minētajā sakarā nav noteicošais faktors.

(22) Any processing of personal data in the context of the activities of an establishment of a controller or a processor in the Union should be carried out in accordance with this Regulation, regardless of whether the processing itself takes place within the Union. Establishment implies the effective and real exercise of activity through stable arrangements. The legal form of such arrangements, whether through a branch or a subsidiary with a legal personality, is not the determining factor in that respect.

(14) Šajā regulā noteiktajai aizsardzībai attiecībā uz personas datu apstrādi būtu jāattiecas uz fiziskām personām neatkarīgi no to valstspiederības vai dzīvesvietas. Šī regula neattiecas uz tādu personas datu apstrādi, kas skar juridiskas personas un jo īpaši uzņēmumus, kuriem ir juridiskas personas statuss, tostarp juridiskās personas nosaukumu, uzņēmējdarbības formu un kontaktinformāciju.

(14) The protection afforded by this Regulation should apply to natural persons, whatever their nationality or place of residence, in relation to the processing of their personal data. This Regulation does not cover the processing of personal data which concerns legal persons and in particular undertakings established as legal persons, including the name and the form of the legal person and the contact details of the legal person.

Savienojumi

2. Šo regulu piemēro Savienībā esošu datu subjektu personas datu apstrādei, ko veic pārzinis vai apstrādātājs, kas neveic uzņēmējdarbību Savienībā, ja apstrādes darbības ir saistītas ar:

2. This Regulation applies to the processing of personal data of data subjects who are in the Union by a controller or processor not established in the Union, where the processing activities are related to:

Savienojumi

a) preču vai pakalpojumu piedāvāšanu šādiem datu subjektiem Savienībā, neatkarīgi no tā, vai no datu subjekta tiek prasīta samaksa; vai

(a) the offering of goods or services, irrespective of whether a payment of the data subject is required, to such data subjects in the Union; or

Apsvērums

(23) Lai nodrošinātu, ka fiziskām personām netiek liegta aizsardzība, kas tām pienākas saskaņā ar šo regulu, Savienībā esošu datu subjektu personas datu apstrāde, ko veic pārzinis vai apstrādātājs, kas neveic uzņēmējdarbību Savienībā, būtu jāveic saskaņā ar šo regulu, ja apstrādes darbības ir saistītas ar preču vai pakalpojumu piedāvāšanu šādiem datu subjektiem neatkarīgi no tā, vai tā ir saistīta ar samaksu. Lai noteiktu, vai šāds pārzinis vai apstrādātājs piedāvā preces vai pakalpojumus datu subjektiem, kuri ir Savienībā, būtu jāpārliecinās, vai ir acīmredzams, ka pārzinis vai apstrādātājs ir iecerējis piedāvāt pakalpojumus datu subjektiem vienā vai vairākās Savienības dalībvalstīs. Tā kā, lai pārliecinātos par šādu ieceri, nepietiek tikai ar to, ka ir pieejama pārziņa, apstrādātāja vai starpnieka tīmekļa vietne Savienībā, e-pasta adrese vai cita kontaktinformācija, vai ka tiek izmantota valoda, ko parasti izmanto trešā valstī, kurā pārzinis veic uzņēmējdarbību, faktori, piemēram, tādas valodas vai valūtas izmantošana, kuru parasti izmanto vienā vai vairākās dalībvalstīs, piedāvājot pasūtīt preces un pakalpojumus minētajā citā valodā, vai Savienībā esošu klientu vai lietotāju pieminēšana var liecināt par to, ka pārzinis ir iecerējis piedāvāt preces vai pakalpojumus datu subjektiem Savienībā.

(23) In order to ensure that natural persons are not deprived of the protection to which they are entitled under this Regulation, the processing of personal data of data subjects who are in the Union by a controller or a processor not established in the Union should be subject to this Regulation where the processing activities are related to offering goods or services to such data subjects irrespective of whether connected to a payment. In order to determine whether such a controller or processor is offering goods or services to data subjects who are in the Union, it should be ascertained whether it is apparent that the controller or processor envisages offering services to data subjects in one or more Member States in the Union. Whereas the mere accessibility of the controller's, processor's or an intermediary's website in the Union, of an email address or of other contact details, or the use of a language generally used in the third country where the controller is established, is insufficient to ascertain such intention, factors such as the use of a language or a currency generally used in one or more Member States with the possibility of ordering goods and services in that other language, or the mentioning of customers or users who are in the Union, may make it apparent that the controller envisages offering goods or services to data subjects in the Union.

Savienojumi

b) viņu uzvedības novērošanu, ciktāl viņu uzvedība notiek Savienībā.

(b) the monitoring of their behaviour as far as their behaviour takes place within the Union.

Apsvērums

(24) Savienībā esošu datu subjektu personas datu apstrāde, ko veic pārzinis vai apstrādātājs, kas neveic uzņēmējdarbību Savienībā, būtu jāveic saskaņā ar šo regulu arī tad, ja tā ir saistīta ar šādu datu subjektu uzvedības novērošanu, ciktāl to uzvedība notiek Savienībā. Lai noteiktu, vai apstrādes darbību var uzskatīt par datu subjektu “uzvedības novērošanu”, būtu jāpārliecinās, vai fiziska persona tiek izsekota internetā, tostarp vai var turpmāk izmantot personas datu apstrādes paņēmienus, kas ietver fiziskas personas profilēšanu, jo īpaši, lai pieņemtu lēmumus par datu subjektu vai lai analizētu vai iepriekš paredzētu datu subjekta personīgās vēlmes, uzvedību un attieksmi.

(24) The processing of personal data of data subjects who are in the Union by a controller or processor not established in the Union should also be subject to this Regulation when it is related to the monitoring of the behaviour of such data subjects in so far as their behaviour takes place within the Union. In order to determine whether a processing activity can be considered to monitor the behaviour of data subjects, it should be ascertained whether natural persons are tracked on the internet including potential subsequent use of personal data processing techniques which consist of profiling a natural person, particularly in order to take decisions concerning her or him or for analysing or predicting her or his personal preferences, behaviours and attitudes.

Savienojumi

3. Šo regulu piemēro personas datu apstrādei, ko veic pārzinis, kas neveic uzņēmējdarbību Savienībā, bet vietā, kur saskaņā ar starptautiskajām publiskajām tiesībām ir piemērojamas dalībvalsts tiesības.

3. This Regulation applies to the processing of personal data by a controller not established in the Union, but in a place where Member State law applies by virtue of public international law.

Apsvērums

(25) Ja, ievērojot starptautiskās publiskās tiesības, ir piemērojamas dalībvalsts tiesības, tad šī regula būtu piemērojama arī pārzinim, kas neveic uzņēmējdarbību Savienībā, piemēram, pārzinim dalībvalsts diplomātiskajā pārstāvniecībā vai konsulātā.

(25) Where Member State law applies by virtue of public international law, this Regulation should also apply to a controller not established in the Union, such as in a Member State’s diplomatic mission or consular post.

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(EN) One of the most frequent questions asked is whether a company falls within the scope of the GDPR. It relates, among other things, to the definition of the European regulation’s territorial scope.

Here you can find a little self-assessment test:

Does the GDPR apply in these cases?

  1. A Russian mobile application processes the geolocation data of Russian and foreign nationals in the EU.
  2. A Belarusian dating site collects contact information from all its users. Americans and Europeans who come to Belarus and want to meet local women can also register on the site.
  3. An Italian chain has opened a new hotel in Kyiv, where both Europeans and citizens of other countries stay. Guests registration is carried out on the Italian site, and data are processed in the head office of the management company in Italy.
  4. An American training platform uses personal data to sell online courses around the world.
  5. EU nationals, who are on vacation in India, came to an Austrian airline’s local office in Mumbai to fly to Bali for a couple of days. For this purpose, their passport information and bank card data were collected, as well as the information that the passengers are vegetarians.
  6. EU users visit the site of a company from Rostov-on-Don 2-3 times a month and order flower deliveries in the city for their loved ones. The site is in Russian. Deliveries are only in Rostov. The currency of payment is the Russian ruble.

If you doubt the answers, go on reading and you will find the detailed analysis in the video lesson at the bottom of this article (in Russian).

Here are three cases, which show when it is necessary to observe the GDPR:

  1. When data are processed in the context of the activities of an establishment in the EU. In other words, if the office is physically located in any of the EU countries and the data are processed in that office, the GDPR applies. Thus, the correct answer to the third question concerning the Italian hotel is affirmative, i.e. it is necessary to comply with the GDPR.

By the way, this paragraph does not apply only to a physical office or a registered legal entity. There are many other unobvious examples of what should be considered as the “context of the activities of an establishment”. We describe them in detail in the video.

  1. When the data subject is in the EU and the processing relates to the supply of goods and services. In this case, “data subject” does not refer only to European citizens, but also to people from other countries who are passing through, traveling, or staying temporary in Europe. At the same time, the goods and services do not necessarily have to be paid for. For example, a free mobile app that you have downloaded.

Therefore, if, for example, a Russian citizen, being in Latvia, has used a Russian mobile application, she or he is protected by the GDPR. So the correct answer to the first question is affirmative, i.e. it is necessary to comply with the GDPR.

By the way, according to this paragraph, the GDPR also applies to other cases, which we have mentioned at the beginning of this article. For instance, in the second case, the Belarusian dating site provides a service to European citizens, as well as the American platform from the fourth case.

In comparison, in the fifth case concerning the purchase of tickets to Bali, the GDPR is not applicable, as these people have left the EU and are buying tickets in the office in India.

Do you know why in the sixth case concerning the flower delivery the GDPR does not apply, although the data of European citizens are processed? The reason is that the exception described in the recitals of the Regulation is based on a specific judicial precedent.

For more details on these recitals and court precedent, please see our video lesson.

  1. When you monitor behaviour within the EU. These situations are rare. And that rule does not apply to any of the cases from this article. More detailed information can be found in the video.

We hope that the information was helpful. Share it with your colleagues and make sure to see our detailed video lesson below in which you will find:

  • A detailed explanation of the diagram “the territorial scope of the GDPR”;
  • Explanation of articles, recitals, judicial precedents, and clarification by the supervisory authority;
  • Further examples and cases from practice;
  • Detailed case analysis from this article.


lai piekļūtu pilnam tekstam

(EN) Author
(EN) Siarhei Varankevich CIPP/E, CIPM, CIPT, MBA, FIP
FIP_IAPP
(EN) Co-Founder & CEO of Data Privacy Office LLC. Data Protection Trainer and Principal Consultant
Apsvērums

(22) Personas datu apstrādei, kas notiek saistībā ar darbībām, ko veic pārziņa vai apstrādātāja uzņēmējdarbībā Savienībā, būtu jānotiek saskaņā ar šo regulu neatkarīgi no tā, vai pati apstrāde notiek Savienībā. Uzņēmējdarbības veikšana nozīmē efektīvu un faktisku darbību, ko veic pastāvīga vienība. Šādas vienības juridiskā forma neatkarīgi no tā, vai tā ir filiāle vai meitasuzņēmums ar juridiskas personas statusu, minētajā sakarā nav noteicošais faktors.

(22) Any processing of personal data in the context of the activities of an establishment of a controller or a processor in the Union should be carried out in accordance with this Regulation, regardless of whether the processing itself takes place within the Union. Establishment implies the effective and real exercise of activity through stable arrangements. The legal form of such arrangements, whether through a branch or a subsidiary with a legal personality, is not the determining factor in that respect.

(23) Lai nodrošinātu, ka fiziskām personām netiek liegta aizsardzība, kas tām pienākas saskaņā ar šo regulu, Savienībā esošu datu subjektu personas datu apstrāde, ko veic pārzinis vai apstrādātājs, kas neveic uzņēmējdarbību Savienībā, būtu jāveic saskaņā ar šo regulu, ja apstrādes darbības ir saistītas ar preču vai pakalpojumu piedāvāšanu šādiem datu subjektiem neatkarīgi no tā, vai tā ir saistīta ar samaksu. Lai noteiktu, vai šāds pārzinis vai apstrādātājs piedāvā preces vai pakalpojumus datu subjektiem, kuri ir Savienībā, būtu jāpārliecinās, vai ir acīmredzams, ka pārzinis vai apstrādātājs ir iecerējis piedāvāt pakalpojumus datu subjektiem vienā vai vairākās Savienības dalībvalstīs. Tā kā, lai pārliecinātos par šādu ieceri, nepietiek tikai ar to, ka ir pieejama pārziņa, apstrādātāja vai starpnieka tīmekļa vietne Savienībā, e-pasta adrese vai cita kontaktinformācija, vai ka tiek izmantota valoda, ko parasti izmanto trešā valstī, kurā pārzinis veic uzņēmējdarbību, faktori, piemēram, tādas valodas vai valūtas izmantošana, kuru parasti izmanto vienā vai vairākās dalībvalstīs, piedāvājot pasūtīt preces un pakalpojumus minētajā citā valodā, vai Savienībā esošu klientu vai lietotāju pieminēšana var liecināt par to, ka pārzinis ir iecerējis piedāvāt preces vai pakalpojumus datu subjektiem Savienībā.

(23) In order to ensure that natural persons are not deprived of the protection to which they are entitled under this Regulation, the processing of personal data of data subjects who are in the Union by a controller or a processor not established in the Union should be subject to this Regulation where the processing activities are related to offering goods or services to such data subjects irrespective of whether connected to a payment. In order to determine whether such a controller or processor is offering goods or services to data subjects who are in the Union, it should be ascertained whether it is apparent that the controller or processor envisages offering services to data subjects in one or more Member States in the Union. Whereas the mere accessibility of the controller's, processor's or an intermediary's website in the Union, of an email address or of other contact details, or the use of a language generally used in the third country where the controller is established, is insufficient to ascertain such intention, factors such as the use of a language or a currency generally used in one or more Member States with the possibility of ordering goods and services in that other language, or the mentioning of customers or users who are in the Union, may make it apparent that the controller envisages offering goods or services to data subjects in the Union.

(24) Savienībā esošu datu subjektu personas datu apstrāde, ko veic pārzinis vai apstrādātājs, kas neveic uzņēmējdarbību Savienībā, būtu jāveic saskaņā ar šo regulu arī tad, ja tā ir saistīta ar šādu datu subjektu uzvedības novērošanu, ciktāl to uzvedība notiek Savienībā. Lai noteiktu, vai apstrādes darbību var uzskatīt par datu subjektu “uzvedības novērošanu”, būtu jāpārliecinās, vai fiziska persona tiek izsekota internetā, tostarp vai var turpmāk izmantot personas datu apstrādes paņēmienus, kas ietver fiziskas personas profilēšanu, jo īpaši, lai pieņemtu lēmumus par datu subjektu vai lai analizētu vai iepriekš paredzētu datu subjekta personīgās vēlmes, uzvedību un attieksmi.

(24) The processing of personal data of data subjects who are in the Union by a controller or processor not established in the Union should also be subject to this Regulation when it is related to the monitoring of the behaviour of such data subjects in so far as their behaviour takes place within the Union. In order to determine whether a processing activity can be considered to monitor the behaviour of data subjects, it should be ascertained whether natural persons are tracked on the internet including potential subsequent use of personal data processing techniques which consist of profiling a natural person, particularly in order to take decisions concerning her or him or for analysing or predicting her or his personal preferences, behaviours and attitudes.

(25) Ja, ievērojot starptautiskās publiskās tiesības, ir piemērojamas dalībvalsts tiesības, tad šī regula būtu piemērojama arī pārzinim, kas neveic uzņēmējdarbību Savienībā, piemēram, pārzinim dalībvalsts diplomātiskajā pārstāvniecībā vai konsulātā.

(25) Where Member State law applies by virtue of public international law, this Regulation should also apply to a controller not established in the Union, such as in a Member State’s diplomatic mission or consular post.

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