1. Where a type of processing in particular using new technologies, and taking into account the nature, scope, context and purposes of the processing, is likely to result in a high risk to the rights and freedoms of natural persons, the controller shall, prior to the processing, carry out an assessment of the impact of the envisaged processing operations on the protection of personal data. A single assessment may address a set of similar processing operations that present similar high risks.
2. The controller shall seek the advice of the data protection officer, where designated, when carrying out a data protection impact assessment.
3. A data protection impact assessment referred to in paragraph 1 shall in particular be required in the case of:
(a) a systematic and extensive evaluation of personal aspects relating to natural persons which is based on automated processing, including profiling, and on which decisions are based that produce legal effects concerning the natural person or similarly significantly affect the natural person;
(b) processing on a large scale of special categories of data referred to in Article 9(1), or of personal data relating to criminal convictions and offences referred to in Article 10; or
4. The supervisory authority shall establish and make public a list of the kind of processing operations which are subject to the requirement for a data protection impact assessment pursuant to paragraph 1. The supervisory authority shall communicate those lists to the Board referred to in Article 68.
5. The supervisory authority may also establish and make public a list of the kind of processing operations for which no data protection impact assessment is required. The supervisory authority shall communicate those lists to the Board.
6. Prior to the adoption of the lists referred to in paragraphs 4 and 5, the competent supervisory authority shall apply the consistency mechanism referred to in Article 63 where such lists involve processing activities which are related to the offering of goods or services to data subjects or to the monitoring of their behaviour in several Member States, or may substantially affect the free movement of personal data within the Union.
(a) a systematic description of the envisaged processing operations and the purposes of the processing, including, where applicable, the legitimate interest pursued by the controller;
(b) an assessment of the necessity and proportionality of the processing operations in relation to the purposes;
(c) an assessment of the risks to the rights and freedoms of data subjects referred to in paragraph 1; and
(d) the measures envisaged to address the risks, including safeguards, security measures and mechanisms to ensure the protection of personal data and to demonstrate compliance with this Regulation taking into account the rights and legitimate interests of data subjects and other persons concerned.
8. Compliance with approved codes of conduct referred to in Article 40 by the relevant controllers or processors shall be taken into due account in assessing the impact of the processing operations performed by such controllers or processors, in particular for the purposes of a data protection impact assessment.
9. Where appropriate, the controller shall seek the views of data subjects or their representatives on the intended processing, without prejudice to the protection of commercial or public interests or the security of processing operations.
ISO/IEC 27701, adopted in 2019, added a requirement additional to ISO/IEC 27001, section 4.2.
Here is the relevant paragraph to article 35(9) GDPR:
5.2.2 Understanding the needs and expectations of interested parties
The organization shall include among its interested parties (see ISO/IEC 27001:2013, 4.2), those parties having interests or responsibilities associated with the processing of PII, including the PII principals.
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10. Where processing pursuant to point (c) or (e) of Article 6(1) has a legal basis in Union law or in the law of the Member State to which the controller is subject, that law regulates the specific processing operation or set of operations in question, and a data protection impact assessment has already been carried out as part of a general impact assessment in the context of the adoption of that legal basis, paragraphs 1 to 7 shall not apply unless Member States deem it to be necessary to carry out such an assessment prior to processing activities.
The latest consolidated version of the Regulation with corrections by Corrigendum, OJ L 127, 23.5.2018, p. 2 ((EU) 2016/679). Source: EUR-lex.
ISO/IEC 27701, adopted in 2019, added additional ISO/IEC 27002 guidance for PII controllers.
Here is the relevant paragraph to article 35 GDPR:
7.2.5 Privacy impact assessment
The organization should assess the need for, and implement where appropriate, a privacy impact assessment whenever new processing of PII or changes to existing processing of PII is planned.
PII processing generates risks for PII principals. These risks should be assessed through a privacy impact assessment.
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(85) Нарушение безопасности персональных данных, если оно не было надлежащим образом и вовремя устранено, может повлечь физический, материальный или моральный вред физическим лицам, как, например, потеря контроля над их персональными данными или ограничение их прав, дискриминация, кража личности или ее мошенническое использование, финансовые потери, несанкционированная повторная идентификация псевдонимизированных данных, ущерб репутации, нарушение конфиденциальности персональных данных, защищенных профессиональной тайной, или любой другой значительный экономический или социальный вред, нанесенный физическому лицу. Поэтому, как только контролёру становится известно о нарушении безопасности персональных данных, он обязан уведомить о таком нарушении надзорный орган без неоправданной задержки и, по возможности, не позднее 72 часов, за исключением случаев, когда контролёр может подтвердить, в соответствии с принципом подотчетности, что нарушение безопасности персональных данных с малой вероятностью может представлять риск нарушения прав и свобод физических лиц. В случаях, когда подобное уведомление не может быть сделано в течение 72 часов, причины такой задержки должны сопровождать уведомление и информация может предоставляться поэтапно без дополнительной задержки.
(84) In order to enhance compliance with this Regulation where processing operations are likely to result in a high risk to the rights and freedoms of natural persons, the controller should be responsible for the carrying-out of a data protection impact assessment to evaluate, in particular, the origin, nature, particularity and severity of that risk. The outcome of the assessment should be taken into account when determining the appropriate measures to be taken in order to demonstrate that the processing of personal data complies with this Regulation. Where a data-protection impact assessment indicates that processing operations involve a high risk which the controller cannot mitigate by appropriate measures in terms of available technology and costs of implementation, a consultation of the supervisory authority should take place prior to the processing.
(89) Directive 95/46/EC provided for a general obligation to notify the processing of personal data to the supervisory authorities. While that obligation produces administrative and financial burdens, it did not in all cases contribute to improving the protection of personal data. Such indiscriminate general notification obligations should therefore be abolished, and replaced by effective procedures and mechanisms which focus instead on those types of processing operations which are likely to result in a high risk to the rights and freedoms of natural persons by virtue of their nature, scope, context and purposes. Such types of processing operations may be those which in, particular, involve using new technologies, or are of a new kind and where no data protection impact assessment has been carried out before by the controller, or where they become necessary in the light of the time that has elapsed since the initial processing.
(90) In such cases, a data protection impact assessment should be carried out by the controller prior to the processing in order to assess the particular likelihood and severity of the high risk, taking into account the nature, scope, context and purposes of the processing and the sources of the risk. That impact assessment should include, in particular, the measures, safeguards and mechanisms envisaged for mitigating that risk, ensuring the protection of personal data and demonstrating compliance with this Regulation.
(91) This should in particular apply to large-scale processing operations which aim to process a considerable amount of personal data at regional, national or supranational level and which could affect a large number of data subjects and which are likely to result in a high risk, for example, on account of their sensitivity, where in accordance with the achieved state of technological knowledge a new technology is used on a large scale as well as to other processing operations which result in a high risk to the rights and freedoms of data subjects, in particular where those operations render it more difficult for data subjects to exercise their rights. A data protection impact assessment should also be made where personal data are processed for taking decisions regarding specific natural persons following any systematic and extensive evaluation of personal aspects relating to natural persons based on profiling those data or following the processing of special categories of personal data, biometric data, or data on criminal convictions and offences or related security measures. A data protection impact assessment is equally required for monitoring publicly accessible areas on a large scale, especially when using optic-electronic devices or for any other operations where the competent supervisory authority considers that the processing is likely to result in a high risk to the rights and freedoms of data subjects, in particular because they prevent data subjects from exercising a right or using a service or a contract, or because they are carried out systematically on a large scale. The processing of personal data should not be considered to be on a large scale if the processing concerns personal data from patients or clients by an individual physician, other health care professional or lawyer. In such cases, a data protection impact assessment should not be mandatory.
(92) There are circumstances under which it may be reasonable and economical for the subject of a data protection impact assessment to be broader than a single project, for example where public authorities or bodies intend to establish a common application or processing platform or where several controllers plan to introduce a common application or processing environment across an industry sector or segment or for a widely used horizontal activity.
(93) In the context of the adoption of the Member State law on which the performance of the tasks of the public authority or public body is based and which regulates the specific processing operation or set of operations in question, Member States may deem it necessary to carry out such assessment prior to the processing activities.
Article 29 Working Party, Guidelines on Data Protection Impact Assessment (DPIA) and Determining Whether Processing Is “likely to Result in a High Risk” for the Purposes of Regulation 2016/679 (2017).
CNIL, PIA Tool (2017-2020).
EDPB, Guidelines on the use of location data and contact tracing tools in the context of the COVID-19 outbreak (2020).
EDPB, Guidelines 8/2020 on the targeting of social media users (2020).
WP29, Opinion on data processing at work (2017).
European Commission, Guidance on Apps supporting the fight against COVID 19 pandemic in relation to data protection Brussels (2020).
EDPB, Guidelines 02/2021 on Virtual Voice Assistants (2021).
CJEU, Fashion ID GmbH & Co. KG/Verbraucherzentrale NRW eV, C-40/17 (2019).
ISO/IEC 27701, adopted in 2019, added additional ISO/IEC 27002 guidance for PII processors.
Here is the relevant paragraph to articles 35(1) GDPR:
8.2.1 Customer agreement
The organization should ensure, where relevant, that the contract to process PII addresses the organization’s role in providing assistance with the customer’s obligations (taking into account the nature of processing and the information available to the organization).
The contract between the organization and the customer should include the following wherever relevant, and depending on the customer’s role (PII controller or PII processor) (this list is neither definitive nor exhaustive):
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