1. Taking into account the nature, scope, context and purposes of processing as well as the risks of varying likelihood and severity for the rights and freedoms of natural persons, the controller shall implement appropriate technical and organisational measures to ensure and to be able to demonstrate that processing is performed in accordance with this Regulation. Those measures shall be reviewed and updated where necessary.
2. Where proportionate in relation to processing activities, the measures referred to in paragraph 1 shall include the implementation of appropriate data protection policies by the controller.
ISO/IEC 27701, adopted in 2019, added a requirement additional to ISO/IEC 27002, section 5.1.1.
Here is the relevant paragraph to article 24(2) GDPR:
22.214.171.124 Policies for information security
Either by the development of separate privacy policies, or by the augmentation of information security policies, the organization should produce a statement concerning support for and commitment to achieving compliance with applicable PII protection legislation and/or regulation and with the contractual terms agreed between the organization and its partners, its subcontractors and its applicable third parties (customers, suppliers etc.), which should clearly allocate responsibilities between them.
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3. Adherence to approved codes of conduct as referred to in Article 40 or approved certification mechanisms as referred to in Article 42 may be used as an element by which to demonstrate compliance with the obligations of the controller.
ISO/IEC 27701, adopted in 2019, added a requirement additional to ISO/IEC 27001, section 4.1.
Here is the relevant paragraph to article 24(3) GDPR:
5.2.1 Understanding the organization and its context
The organization shall include among its interested parties (see ISO/IEC 27001:2013, 4.2), those parties having interests or responsibilities associated with the processing of PII, including the PII principals.
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The latest consolidated version of the Regulation with corrections by Corrigendum, OJ L 127, 23.5.2018, p. 2 ((EU) 2016/679). Source: EUR-lex.
A controller is a person or an organization that determines the personal data to process and the purposes and means of the processing (Article 4(7)). The definition rightly points to the decision-making capacity of the entity that “decides why and how data will be processed” (ULD Schleswig-Holstein/Wirtschaftsakademie, Opinion of Advocate General).
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(74) The responsibility and liability of the controller for any processing of personal data carried out by the controller or on the controller's behalf should be established. In particular, the controller should be obliged to implement appropriate and effective measures and be able to demonstrate the compliance of processing activities with this Regulation, including the effectiveness of the measures. Those measures should take into account the nature, scope, context and purposes of the processing and the risk to the rights and freedoms of natural persons.
(85) Нарушение безопасности персональных данных, если оно не было надлежащим образом и вовремя устранено, может повлечь физический, материальный или моральный вред физическим лицам, как, например, потеря контроля над их персональными данными или ограничение их прав, дискриминация, кража личности или ее мошенническое использование, финансовые потери, несанкционированная повторная идентификация псевдонимизированных данных, ущерб репутации, нарушение конфиденциальности персональных данных, защищенных профессиональной тайной, или любой другой значительный экономический или социальный вред, нанесенный физическому лицу. Поэтому, как только контролёру становится известно о нарушении безопасности персональных данных, он обязан уведомить о таком нарушении надзорный орган без неоправданной задержки и, по возможности, не позднее 72 часов, за исключением случаев, когда контролёр может подтвердить, в соответствии с принципом подотчетности, что нарушение безопасности персональных данных с малой вероятностью может представлять риск нарушения прав и свобод физических лиц. В случаях, когда подобное уведомление не может быть сделано в течение 72 часов, причины такой задержки должны сопровождать уведомление и информация может предоставляться поэтапно без дополнительной задержки.
(76) The likelihood and severity of the risk to the rights and freedoms of the data subject should be determined by reference to the nature, scope, context and purposes of the processing. Risk should be evaluated on the basis of an objective assessment, by which it is established whether data processing operations involve a risk or a high risk.
(77) Guidance on the implementation of appropriate measures and on the demonstration of compliance by the controller or the processor, especially as regards the identification of the risk related to the processing, their assessment in terms of origin, nature, likelihood and severity, and the identification of best practices to mitigate the risk, could be provided in particular by means of approved codes of conduct, approved certifications, guidelines provided by the Board or indications provided by a data protection officer. The Board may also issue guidelines on processing operations that are considered to be unlikely to result in a high risk to the rights and freedoms of natural persons and indicate what measures may be sufficient in such cases to address such risk.
(83) In order to maintain security and to prevent processing in infringement of this Regulation, the controller or processor should evaluate the risks inherent in the processing and implement measures to mitigate those risks, such as encryption. Those measures should ensure an appropriate level of security, including confidentiality, taking into account the state of the art and the costs of implementation in relation to the risks and the nature of the personal data to be protected. In assessing data security risk, consideration should be given to the risks that are presented by personal data processing, such as accidental or unlawful destruction, loss, alteration, unauthorised disclosure of, or access to, personal data transmitted, stored or otherwise processed which may in particular lead to physical, material or non-material damage.
CJEU, Unabhängiges Landeszentrum für Datenschutz Schleswig-Holstein/Wirtschaftsakademie Schleswig-Holstein GmbH, Opinion of Advocate General, C‑210/16 (2018).
CJEU, Unabhängiges Landeszentrum für Datenschutz Schleswig-Holstein/Wirtschaftsakademie Schleswig-Holstein GmbH, C‑210/16 (2018).
Belgian DPA Fines Belgian Telecommunications Provider for Several Data Protection Infringements, (2020). Brief description in English.
Article 29 Working Party, Opinion 1/2010 on the concepts of “controller” and “processor” (2010).
EDPB, Guidelines on the Concepts of Controller, Processor and Joint Controllership Under Regulation (EU) 2018/1725 (2019).
EDPB, Guidelines 7/2020 on the Concepts of Controller and Processor in the GDPR (2021).
ISO/IEC 27701, adopted in 2019, added additional ISO/IEC 27002 guidance for PII controllers.
Here is the relevant paragraph to article 24(1) GDPR:
7.2.8 Records related to processing PII
The organization should determine and securely maintain the necessary records in support of its obligations for the processing of PII.
A way to maintain records of the processing of PII is to have an inventory or list of the PII processing activities that the organization performs.
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